Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignant epithelial tumor characterized by a dismal prognosis. Given the lack of therapeutic strategies and durable treatment options currently available, identifying innovative treatments for CCA is an urgent unmet clinical need. Cucurbitacin C (CuC) is a distinct variant of the cucurbitacin family, displaying promising anti-cancer activity against various tumor types. The primary objective of our research is to elucidate the promising effects of CuC on CCA. The impact of CuC on CCA cell lines was assessed by cell count kit-8 assay, EdU staining assay, colony formation assay, wound-healing assay, and Transwell assay. Flow cytometric analysis was conducted to explore the function of CuC treatments on cell-cycle distribution and apoptosis in CCA cells. Computational biology and network pharmacology approaches were utilized to predict potential targets of CuC. Furthermore, a tumor xenograft mouse model was established using CCA cells to explore the anti-cancer effects of CuC in vivo. Our research findings revealed that CuC exerted a suppressive effect on CCA cell progression. Cell viability assays, EdU staining assays, and colony formation assays demonstrated that CuC effectively suppressed viability and proliferation of CCA cells. Wound-healing assays and Transwell assays indicated that CuC effectively inhibits the migratory and invasive capabilities of CCA cells. Flow cytometry analysis elucidated that CuC played its anti-proliferative role in CCA cells by arresting G0/G1 phase and increasing apoptosis. Through bioinformatics and network pharmacology analysis, in conjunction with western blot analysis, we demonstrated CuC mediated the inhibition of CCA cell progression through modulation of JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Additionally, the CCA xenograft tumor model was established, and the results supported the inhibition of CuC treatment against CCA progression in vivo. Our study demonstrates that CuC possesses notable capabilities to suppress cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in CCA. Importantly, the inhibitory effects of CuC on CCA progression are attributed to its modulation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Altogether, our study demonstrated that CuC holds promise as a prospective therapeutic agent for treating CCA.