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Prevention of Early-Onset Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease: A Comprehensive Review of Major Guidelines.

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization during pregnancy is associated with significant neonatal morbidity and mortality and represents a major public health concern, often associated with poor screening and management. The aim of this study was to review and compare the most recently published influential guidelines on the screening and management of this clinical entity during antenatal and intrapartum periods. A descriptive review of guidelines from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada on the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease was carried out. There is a consensus among the reviewed guidelines regarding the optimal screening specimen type, indications for intrapartum antibiotic administration such as bacteriuria during pregnancy, clinical signs of chorioamnionitis or maternal pyrexia, and history of GBS-related neonatal disease. There is also agreement on several conditions where no intervention is recommended, that is, antepartum treatment of GBS and GBS-positive women with planned cesarean delivery and intact membranes. Controversy exists regarding the optimal screening time, with the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists stating against routine screening and on management strategies related to preterm labor and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. The development of consistent international practice protocols for the timely screening of GBS and effective management of this clinical entity both during pregnancy and the intrapartum period seems of paramount importance to safely guide clinical practice and subsequently improve neonatal outcomes.

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Central Sensitization in Vulvodynia and Endometriosis: What Have We Been Overlooking So Far?

Women experience more frequent and greater pain than men, although they receive less adequate treatment and are perceived as more anxious than males. Recent clinical research has lead to hypothesize a common etiology for overlapping chronic pain conditions and mood disorders, namely, central sensitization, which originates from an alteration of pain processing pathways in the central nervous system. The aim of this review was to collect all available evidence regarding the potential role of central sensitization in vulvodynia and endometriosis. A systematic literature search was performed between July and August 2022 using the electronic database PubMed. The extracted data were summarized using a narrative approach. Ten articles were chosen for the review. Participants' mean age was 39.2 years (SD = 5.1). Among serum markers of central sensitization, nitric oxide levels were greater in women with endometriosis than in controls, whereas brain-derived neurotrophic factor and S100B levels differed among pain conditions with structural anomalies and those without. Functional magnetic resonance imaging showed different resting state networks between patients with endometriosis and controls. In neurophysiology studies, cases had reduced pain thresholds, compared with healthy controls. Lastly, self-reported questionnaires suggested a central component of pain in women with endometriosis-related dyspareunia and associated bladder/pelvic floor tenderness. The management of vulvodynia and endometriosis may benefit from a new perspective, which considers their possible central etiology. It is compelling that treatment of pain starts to be considered a therapeutic goal in its own right.

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Spontaneous Rupture of the Unscarred Uterus: A Review of the Literature.

Uterine rupture is defined as a nonsurgical disruption of all layers of the uterus. Most ruptures occur in the presence of a scar, usually secondary to a previous cesarean delivery. Rupture of an unscarred uterus is rare and is associated with severe maternal and neonatal outcomes. To outline the literature on potential predisposing factors, clinical findings, and maternal and fetal outcomes of a rupture of an unscarred uterus. PubMed was searched for the phrases "uterine rupture," "unscarred," and "spontaneous." Individual case reports, retrospective case series, and review articles in English between 1983 and 2020 were included. We found 84 case reports in 79 articles. The mean maternal age was 29.3 (SD, 5.7) years; 38 women (45.2%) were nulliparous. Uterine rupture occurred in 37% of the women at term; in 9.9%, the gestational age was ≤12 weeks. The most common clinical presentations were abdominal pain (77.4%), signs of hypovolemic shock (36.9%), fetal distress (31%), and vaginal bleeding (22.6%). The most common risk factors were the use of uterotonic drugs for induction or augmentation of labor and a prior curettage procedure. The most frequently ruptured site was the body of the uterus. Hysterectomy managed 36.9% of the ruptures. Four women died (4.8%). Perinatal mortality was 50.6%. Perinatal death was higher in developing than developed countries. Although rare, spontaneous rupture of the unscarred uterus has serious consequences to the mother and the fetus and should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in pregnancy.

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Diagnosis and Management of Osteoporosis: A Comprehensive Review of Guidelines.

Osteoporosis causes increased morbidity and mortality, and thus poses a significant economic burden to the health systems worldwide. The aim of this study was to review and compare the most recently published major guidelines on diagnosis and management of this common medical entity. A thorough comparative review of the most influential guidelines from the RACGP (Royal Australian College of General Practitioners), the ESCEO-IOF (European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis-International Osteoporosis Foundation), the NOGG (National Osteoporosis Guideline Group), the NAMS (North American Menopause Society), the ES (Endocrine Society), and the ACOG (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists) was conducted. The reviewed guidelines generally agree on the definition, the criteria, and investigations used to diagnose osteoporosis. They also concur regarding the risk factors for osteoporosis and the suggested lifestyle modifications (calcium and vitamin D intake, normal body weight, reduction of alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation). However, there is lack of consensus on indications for fracture risk assessment in the general population and the exact indications for bone mineral density assessment. Referral to a bone specialist is reserved for complex cases of osteoporosis (NOGG, NAMS, and ACOG) or in case of inadequate access to care (RACGP). The use of hip protectors to reduce the risk of fractures is supported by RACGP, NOGG, and NAMS, solely for high-risk elderly patients in residential care settings. All guidelines reviewed recognize the efficacy of the pharmacologic agents (ie, bisphosphonates, denosumab, hormone therapy, and parathyroid hormone analogs). Nonetheless, recommendations regarding monitoring of pharmacotherapy differ, primarily in the case of bisphosphonates. The proposed intervals of repeat bone mineral density testing after initiation of drug therapy are set at 2 years (RACGP), 1-3 years (NAMS, ES, and ACOG), or 3-5 years (ESCEO-IOF and NOGG). All guidelines agree upon the restricted use of bone turnover markers only in bone specialist centers for treatment monitoring purposes. Finally, the definition of treatment failure varies among the reviewed guidelines. Osteoporosis is a distressing condition for women, mainly those of postmenopausal age. Thus, it seems of paramount importance to develop consistent international practice protocols for more cost-effective diagnostic and management techniques, in order to improve women's quality of life.

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Management and Interventions in Previable and Periviable Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes: A Review.

Periviable and previable premature rupture of membranes (pPPROM) occurs in <1% of pregnancies but can have devastating consequences for the mother and the fetus. Understanding risk factors, possible interventions, and both maternal and neonatal outcomes will improve the counseling and care provided for these patients. The aim of this review is to describe the etiology, risk factors, management strategies, neonatal and maternal outcomes, and recurrence risk for patients experiencing pPPROM. A PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL search was undertaken with unlimited years searched. The search terms used included "previable" OR "periviable" AND "fetal membranes" OR "premature rupture" OR "PROM" OR "PPROM." The search was limited to English language. There were 181 articles identified, with 41 being the basis of review. Multiple risk factors for pPPROM have been identified, but their predictive value remains low. Interventions that are typically used once the fetus reaches 23 to 24 weeks of gestation have not been shown to improve outcomes when used in the previable and periviable stage. Neonatal outcomes have improved over time, but survival without severe morbidity remains low. Later gestational age at the time of pPPROM and longer latency period have been shown to be associated with improved outcomes. Periviable and previable premature rupture of membranes are uncommon pregnancy events, but neonatal outcomes remain poor, and routine interventions for PPROM >24 weeks of gestation have not proven beneficial. The 2 most reliable prognostic indicators are gestational age at time of pPPROM and length of the latency period.

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Fetal Growth Restriction: A Comprehensive Review of Major Guidelines.

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common pregnancy complication and a significant contributor of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, mainly due to the lack of effective screening, prevention, and management policies. The aim of this study was to review and compare the most recently published influential guidelines on the management of pregnancies complicated by FGR. A descriptive review of guidelines from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada (SOGC), the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand, the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland, the French College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (FCGO), and the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics on FGR was carried out. Several discrepancies were identified regarding the definition of FGR and small-for-gestational-age fetuses, the diagnostic criteria, and the need of testing for congenital infections. On the contrary, there is an overall agreement among the reviewed guidelines regarding the importance of early universal risk stratification for FGR to accordingly modify the surveillance protocols. Low-risk pregnancies should unanimously be evaluated by serial symphysis fundal height measurement, whereas the high-risk ones warrant increased sonographic surveillance. Following FGR diagnosis, all medical societies agree that umbilical artery Doppler assessment is required to further guide management, whereas amniotic fluid volume evaluation is also recommended by the ACOG, the SOGC, the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand, the FCGO, and the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics. In case of early, severe FGR or FGR accompanied by structural abnormalities, the ACOG, the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the SOGC, and the FCGO support the performance of prenatal diagnostic testing. Consistent protocols also exist on the optimal timing and mode of delivery, the importance of continuous fetal heart rate monitoring during labor, and the need for histopathological examination of the placenta after delivery. On the other hand, guidelines concerning the frequency of fetal growth and Doppler velocimetry evaluation lack uniformity, although most of the reviewed medical societies recommend an average interval of 2 weeks, reduced to weekly or less when umbilical artery abnormalities are detected. Moreover, there is a discrepancy on the appropriate timing for corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate administration, as well as the administration of aspirin as a preventive measure. Cessation of smoking, alcohol consumption, and illicit drug use are proposed as preventive measures to reduce the incidence of FGR. Fetal growth restriction is a clinical entity associated with numerous adverse antenatal and postnatal events, but currently, it has no definitive cure apart from delivery. Thus, the development of uniform international protocols for the early recognition, the adequate surveillance, and the optimal management of growth-restricted fetuses seem of paramount importance to safely guide clinical practice, thereby improving perinatal outcomes of such pregnancies.

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Optimizing Surgical Wound Care in Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) accounts for at least half of all open abdominal surgeries performed. Rates of surgical wound complications after open procedures in OB/GYN range from 5% to 35%. Therefore, optimizing management of surgical wound complications has the potential to significantly reduce cost and morbidity. However, guidelines addressing best practices for wound care in OB/GYN are limited. The objectives of this review are to describe the fundamentals of wound healing and to evaluate available evidence addressing surgical wound care. Based on these data, we provide recommendations for management of extrafascial surgical wound dehiscence after OB/GYN procedures. Literature search was performed in PubMed, Medline, OVID, and the Cochrane database. Relevant guidelines, systematic reviews, and original research articles investigating mechanisms of wound healing, types of wound closure, and management of surgical wound complications were reviewed. Surgical wound complications in OB/GYN are associated with significant cost and morbidity. One of the most common complications is extrafascial dehiscence, which may occur in the setting of hematomas, seromas, or infection. Management includes early debridement and treatment of any underlying infection until healthy granulation tissue is present. For wounds healing by secondary intention, advanced moisture retentive dressings reduce time to healing and are cost-effective when compared with conventional wet-to-dry gauze dressings. Negative pressure wound therapy can be applied to deeper wounds healing by secondary intention. Review of published evidence also supports the use of delayed reclosure to expedite wound healing for select patients. Optimizing surgical wound care has the potential to reduce the cost and morbidity associated with surgical wound complications in OB/GYN. Advanced moisture retentive dressings should be considered for wounds healing by secondary intention. Data support delayed reclosure for select patients, although further studies are needed.

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Neurocutaneous Disorders in Pregnancy.

Neurocutaneous disorders have significant implications for care of the pregnant patient. As neurocutaneous disorders are uncommon, obstetricians may be unfamiliar with these disorders and with recommendations for appropriate care of this population. This review aims to summarize existing literature on the interaction between neurocutaneous disorders and pregnancy and to provide a guide for physicians caring for an affected patient. A PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar search was carried out with a broad range of combinations of the medical subject headings (MeSH) terms "pregnancy," "Sturge -Weber," "Neurofibromatosis Type 1," "neurofibromatosis type 2," "von Hippel Lindau," "Tuberous Sclerosis," "neurocutaneous disorder," "treatment," "congenital malformations," "neurodevelopmental defects," "miscarriage," "breastfeeding," "autoimmune," "pathophysiology," and "management." References of included articles were searched to identify any articles that may have been missed after the above method was used. Neurocutaneous disorders are associated with increased pregnancy-associated maternal and fetal/neonatal morbidity, largely surrounding hypertensive disorders, epilepsy, and medication exposure. Some features of neurocutaneous disorders may be worsened or accelerated by pregnancy. Neurocutaneous disorders can often be diagnosed prenatally. Therefore, directed assessment should be offered to affected individuals with a personal or family history of a neurocutaneous disorder. Patients affected by neurocutaneous disorders who are pregnant or planning for future pregnancy should be carefully followed by a multidisciplinary team, which could include maternal-fetal medicine, neurology, and anesthesia, as well as other relevant subspecialists. Additional research is required regarding optimal counseling and management of these patients.

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CenteringPregnancy: A Review of Implementation and Outcomes.

CenteringPregnancy (CP) is a model for group prenatal care associated with improved perinatal outcomes for preterm birth and low birthweight, increased rates of breastfeeding, and higher rates of patient and clinician satisfaction. The study aims to review the literature related to perinatal outcomes associated with CP, benefits and barriers to implementation, and utility of the model. An electronic-based search was performed in PubMed using the search terms "CenteringPregnancy" OR "Centering Pregnancy," revealing 221 articles. The CP model improves patient centeredness, efficiency, and equality in prenatal care. Challenges include administrative buy-in, limited resources, and financial support. Multisite retrospective studies of CP demonstrate improved maternal, neonatal, postpartum, and well-being outcomes, especially for participants from minority backgrounds; however, prospective studies had mixed results. CenteringPregnancy is feasibly implemented with high tenet fidelity in several low- and middle-income settings with improved perinatal outcomes compared with traditional care. CenteringPregnancy is feasible to implement, largely accepted by communities, and shows positive qualitative and quantitative health outcomes. This body of literature supports CP as a potential tool for decreasing racial inequalities in prenatal access, quality of care, and maternal mortality. Further investigation is necessary to inform obstetric clinicians about the potential outcome differences that exist between group and traditional prenatal care.

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