BackgroundIncreases in phosphorus intake have been observed over the past years in adult populations. However, biomarker-based data are lacking on whether or not phosphorus intake also increased in children. ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to examine 24-hour urinary phosphate excretion (PO4-Ex) and diet-related biomarkers potentially influencing phosphorus status in German children and adolescents from 1985 to 2015. DesignThis longitudinal noninvasive biomarker-based cohort study examined 24-hour urine samples from children and adolescents of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study, collected over 3 decades. Participants/settingExamined individuals (n = 1,057) were healthy participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study, situated in Dortmund, Germany, who had been asked to collect one yearly 24-hour urine sample. Six thousand seven hundred thirty-seven samples collected from participants aged 3 to 17 years between 1985 (baseline) and 2015, were included. Main outcome measuresphosphorus intake was examined biomarker-based by analyzed PO4-Ex in 24-hour urine samples. Whether acid-base status and intakes of protein, salt, and fruits and vegetables, may have relevantly contributed to PO4-Ex levels was assessed by determining 24-hour excretions of net acid, urea-nitrogen, and sodium as well as specific standardized excretions of potassium plus oxalate. Statistical analyses performedTrend analysis over 30 years and potentially influencing diet factors were examined using linear mixed-effect regression models (PROC-MIXED). Adjustments for sex, age, and body surface area were performed. ResultsNo change was identifiable for PO4-Ex over the 3 decades; neither in 3 to 8, 9 to 13, nor in 14 to 17 year olds. However, sodium excretion increased (P = .001). PROC-MIXED analysis on intraindividual changes in PO4-Ex revealed direct relationships with net acid excretion, urea-nitrogen, and sodium excretion and an inverse relationship with a biomarker of fruit and vegetable intake. ConclusionsDespite a direct relationship between PO4-Ex and a biomarker of industrially processed food consumption; that is, sodium excretion, which showed an increasing time trend, phosphorus intake was found to remain stable over decades in children and adolescents.

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