Ionic liquids are a unique class of solvents composed entirely of ions that through the years have been proposed as a green alternative to traditional molecular solvents. By selecting different cation and anion combinations, it is possible to tune their properties to suit a given application. Since the 80′s, when the interest in ionic liquids began to grow, they have been presented as safe and eco-friendly alternatives to molecular solvents in various fields. Today, 40 years later, only few fully industrialized processes and commercialized products use ionic liquids. In this chapter, a balanced analysis on the use of ionic liquids as green solvents is given.

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