In the adjacent areas of Tokyo’s city center, agriculture has been developed since the seventeenth century, playing an important role in the balance between supply and demand of food in the city. After World War II and the progression of urbanization, Tokyo became reliant on its outer regions for its food supply. The existence of potential food problems inside the city is illustrated by self-sufficiency having become extremely low. Conversely, some of Tokyo’s residents have become increasingly interested in food security. Following this trend, some farmers began to introduce new methods of agricultural management to satisfy such residents. This chapter presents an overview of the situation and problems of food balance in Tokyo, and discusses the new challenge of urban agriculture, which can become one of the solutions for food problems. Thus, the case of consumer-participatory style farming-experience gardens in Nerima Ward is introduced. This program is gathering attention from many farmers and civil servants throughout Japan. In farming-experience gardens, a spontaneous and secure food supply is embodied through communities of urban residents led by farmers, becoming a support base of urban agriculture.

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