Abstract

目前农田生态系统价值评价较多关注大尺度空间区域,地方上的动态评价很少,县市等地方政府制定农业资源管理等政策时缺少数据支撑。本文使用文献调查法获得河南省安阳市2008~2014有关数据,基于农田生态系统正负效应评价法核算了安阳市这七年农田生态系统提供的正效应和负效应价值,分析了动态变化,其中正效应包括农产品生产、社会保障、土壤保持、土壤固碳、光合作用释氧、净化大气以及维持营养物质循环,负效应包括地下水资源消耗、温室气体排放、地膜污染、农药损失和化肥流失。结果显示,安阳市农田生态系统正效应价值以约10 × 108元/年的速度增长,2014年接近760 × 108元,其中农产品生产的价值最大,约占33%,而土壤固碳等非生产性价值是主体,占总价值近67%;负效应价值基本趋势也是逐年增长,2014年约为83×108元,负效应以地下水消耗为主,占72%以上,其次是温室气体排放,约占13%。正负效应之差呈增大趋势,2014年为676 × 108元。论文为安阳市相关农业政策的制定提供了重要的数据和信息基础,为我国其他地方农田生态系统价值评价提供了参考范例。 The research on agro-ecosystem evaluation so far has largely been focusing on large-scale areas such as north China or even the whole China territory; little attention has been paid to local city or county levels, less to dynamic changes of agro-ecosystem values over time. This has become an inconvenience when it comes to make a policy about agro-ecosystem due to the lack of relevant data or information. In this paper, we evaluated the positive and negative effects of the agro-eco- system on a local city level, using Anyang city of Henan province as an example, and we did a dynamic analysis on the changes of agro-ecosystem value for the years of 2008-2014. We carried out the evaluations of positive and negative effects by using modified methods used in other studies, based on data collected from official Henan Yearbooks of these years. The positive effects include agricultural production, social security, soil conservation, soil carbon fixation, photosynthesis oxygen release, air cleaning, and nutrients cycling, and the negative effects include underground water consumption, greenhouse gas emission, mulching film pollution, pesticide pollution, and fertilizer loss. Results showed that the positive effects value of Anyang agro-ecosystem increased about 1 billion yuan per year, reaching 76 billion yuan in 2014. Agricultural production value is the biggest part, about 33 percent of the total positive value, while the nonproduction values, including soil carbon fixation, nutrients cycling and photosynthesis oxygen release, were the major value component, about 67% of the total positive value. Negative value showed a similar trend of increase, reaching 8.3 billion yuan in the year of 2014. The major component of negative values was underground water consumption, which was more than 72% of total negative effect value, followed by greenhouse gas emission which is about 13%. The gap between positive and negative values, namely the net value of agro-ecosystem, increased over these years, reaching about 67.6 billion in 2014. These findings provided important base data and information to decision-makings related to agricultural ecosystem management in Anyang city; it also offers a methodological framework for agro-ecosystem evaluation in other local areas in China.

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