AbstractDue to its non‐invasive nature, ultrasound has been widely used for neuromodulation in biological systems, where its application influences the synaptic weights and the process of neurotransmitter delivery. However, such modulation has not been emulated in physical devices. Memristors are ideal electrical components for artificial synapses, but up till now they are hardly reported to respond to ultrasound signals. Here we design and fabricate a HfOx‐based memristor on 64°Y‐X LiNbO3 single crystal substrate, and successfully realize artificial synapses modulation by shear‐horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH‐SAW). It is a prominent short‐term resistance modulation, where ultrasound has been shown to cause resistance drop for various resistance states, which could fully recover after the ultrasound is shut off. The physical mechanism illustrates that ultrasound induced polarization potential in the HfOx dielectric layer acts on the Schottky barrier, leading to the resistance drop. The emulation of neuron firing frequency modulation through ultrasound signals is demonstrated. Moreover, the joint application of ultrasound and electric voltage yields fruitful functionalities, such as the enhancement of resistance window and synaptic plasticity through ultrasound application. All these promising results provide a new strategy for artificial synapses modulation, and also further advance neuromorphic devices toward system applications.image

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