Plants live in fixed locations and have evolved adaptation mechanisms that integrate multiple responses to various environmental signals. Among the different components of these response pathways, receptors/sensors represent nodes that recognise environmental signals. Additionally, RNA metabolism plays an essential role in the regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis. With the development of RNA biotechnology, recent advances have been made in determining the roles of RNA metabolism in response to different environmental signals-especially the roles of alternative splicing and translation. In this review, we discuss recent progress in research on how the environmental adaptation mechanisms in plants are affected at the posttranscriptional level. These findings improve our understanding of the mechanism through which plants adapt to environmental changes by regulating the posttranscriptional level and are conducive for breeding stress-tolerant plants to cope with dynamic and rapidly changing environments.

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