Neurotransmitters act as chemical messengers, determining human physiological and psychological function, and abnormal levels of neurotransmitters are related to conditions such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Biologically and clinically relevant concentrations of neurotransmitters are usually very low (nM), so electrochemical and electronic sensors for neurotransmitter detection play an important role in achieving sensitive and selective detection. Additionally, these sensors have the distinct advantage to potentially be wireless, miniaturized, and multichannel, providing remarkable opportunities for implantable, long-term sensing capabilities unachievable by spectroscopic or chromatographic detection methods. In this article, we will focus on advances in the development and characterization of electrochemical and electronic sensors for neurotransmitters during the last five years, identifying how the field is progressing as well as critical knowledge gaps for sensor researchers.

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