Abstract Breakthrough reverse osmosis (RO) membrane chemistry and innovative materials of construction have been developed to achieve highest possible NaCl rejection while maintaining maximum element productivity. Novel brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) membrane element delivers to end users state-of-the-art salt rejection (99.7%) at 30% lower energy consumption compared to current high rejection BWRO membranes in addition to tailored salt passage reduction of critical solutes as nitrate, boron, silica, and ammonium. The novel module component, low differential pressure (LDP) feed spacers, provide end users with up to 15% savings in direct RO energy reductions via the lowest feed-side pressure drop available in the market. The LDP spacer outperforms other spacers by reducing pressure drop while maintaining high active area and a unique BWRO element with productivity up to 14,000 gallons per day has been achieved. A financial analysis was carried out with a refined cost model using different economic f...

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