We show that the entropy of strings that wind around the Euclidean time circle is proportional to the Noether charge associated with translations along the T-dual time direction. We consider an effective target-space field theory which includes a large class of terms in the action with various modes, interactions and α′ corrections. The entropy and the Noether charge are shown to depend only on the values of fields at the boundary of space. The classical entropy, which is proportional to the inverse of Newton’s constant, is then calculated by evaluating the appropriate boundary term for various geometries with and without a horizon. We verify, in our framework, that for higher-curvature pure gravity theories, the Wald entropy of static neutral black hole solutions is equal to the entropy derived from the Gibbons-Hawking boundary term. We then proceed to discuss horizonless geometries which contain, due to the back-reaction of the strings and branes, a second boundary in addition to the asymptotic boundary. Near this “punctured” boundary, the time-time component of the metric and the derivatives of its logarithm approach zero. Assuming that there are such non-singular solutions, we identify the entropy of the strings and branes in this geometry with the entropy of the solution to all orders in α′. If the asymptotic region of an α′-corrected neutral black hole is connected through the bulk to a puncture, then the black hole entropy is equal to the entropy of the strings and branes. Later, we discuss configurations similar to the charged black p-brane solutions of Horowitz and Strominger, with the second boundary, and show that, to leading order in the α′ expansion, the classical entropy of the strings and branes is equal exactly to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. This result is extended to a configuration that asymptotes to AdS.

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