Tropomyosin 3 (TPM3) plays a significant role as a regulatory protein in muscle contraction, affecting the growth and development of skeletal muscles. Despite its importance, limited research has been conducted to investigate the influence of TPM3 on bovine skeletal muscle development. Therefore, this study revealed the role of TPM3 in bovine myoblast growth and development. This research involved conducting a thorough examination of the Qinchuan cattle TPM3 gene using bioinformatics tools to examine its sequence and structural characteristics. Furthermore, TPM3 expression was evaluated in various bovine tissues and cells using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results showed that the coding region of TPM3 spans 855 bp, with the 161st base being the T base, encoding a protein with 284 amino acids and 19 phosphorylation sites. This protein demonstrated high conservation across species while displaying a predominant α-helix secondary structure despite being an unstable acidic protein. Notably, a noticeable increase in TPM3 expression was observed in the longissimus dorsi muscle and myocardium of calves and adult cattle. Expression patterns varied during different stages of myoblast differentiation. Functional studies that involved interference with TPM3 in Qinchuan cattle myoblasts revealed a very significantly decrease in S-phase cell numbers and EdU-positive staining (P < 0.01), and disrupted myotube morphology. Moreover, interference with TPM3 resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) or highly significantly (P < 0.01) decreased mRNA and protein levels of key proliferation and differentiation markers, indicating its role in the modulation of myoblast behavior. These findings suggest that TPM3 plays an essential role in bovine skeletal muscle growth by influencing myoblast proliferation and differentiation. This study provides a foundation for further exploration into the mechanisms underlying TPM3-mediated regulation of bovine muscle development and provides valuable insights that could guide future research directions as well as potential applications for livestock breeding and addressing muscle-related disorders.

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