SummaryOur brain has the extraordinary capacity to improve motor skills through mental practice. Conceptually, this ability is attributed to internal forward models, which are cerebellar neural networks that can predict the sensory consequences of motor commands. In our study, we employed single and dual-coil transcranial magnetic stimulations to probe the level of corticospinal excitability and cerebellar-brain inhibition, respectively, before and after a mental practice session or a control session. Motor skill (i.e., accuracy and speed) was measured using a sequential finger tapping-task. We found that mental practice enhanced both speed and accuracy. In parallel, the functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the primary motor cortex changed, with less inhibition from the first to the second. These findings reveal the existence of neuroplastic changes within the cerebellum, supporting the involvement of internal models after mental practice.

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