Few studies have evaluated interactions between maternal genetic variation in 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and micronutrient intake on the risk of myelomeningocele (MM) in offspring. Therefore, we sought to determine if the role of maternal MTHFR C677T and A1298C on MM risk is altered by maternal intake of micronutrients related to one-carbon metabolism. The study consisted of 220 MM case-parent trios recruited from 1996 to 2006. A dietary questionnaire was used to obtain information on maternal dietary intake on eight micronutrients including folate and cobalamin. TaqMan assays were used to generate MTHFR C677T and A1298C genotypes. Log-linear models were used to evaluate the joint effects of maternal genotype and micronutrient intake dichotomized as at or above versus below the United States Recommended Dietary Allowance (US RDA) on MM. There was little evidence to suggest maternal MTHFR genotypes interacted with micronutrient intake to influence the risk of MM. For instance, the effect of MTHFR 677T was similar for mothers with cobalamin intake below US RDA (relative risk [RR] = 0.97) versus at or above US RDA cobalamin intake (RR = 0.81, interaction p = 0.87). However, some differences were noted. For example, the effect of MTHFR 1298C appeared to be different between those mothers below US RDA folate intake (RR = 0.98) versus those at or above US RDA folate intake (RR = 0.68), but the interaction was not statistically significant (interaction p = 0.27). There did not appear to be strong effects of maternal micronutrient intake on the role of maternal genetic polymorphisms in MTHFR C677T and A1298C on MM risk. Birth Defects Research 109:99-105, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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