Drylands correspond to ca. 40% of the world’s land surface. Because of their ecological importance, these areas are regularly considered for agricultural purposes. Scorpion assemblages often exhibit higher levels of species diversity in dry habitats and are beneficial indicators in ecological studies in such environments. In this study, we investigated the effects of climatic and spatial predictors on beta diversity patterns among scorpion assemblages distributed in the drylands of Egypt. Scorpion occurrences were compiled from the scientific literature. For each location, we created a set of climatic variables related to precipitation, temperature, and solar irradiation, as well as spatial predictors. A total of 134 scorpion occurrences were obtained, comprising 21 species grouped into three families. Climatic and spatial variables together influenced the patterns of scorpion diversity in Egyptian landscapes. Species replacement accounted for 69% of the total beta diversity. In addition, species replacement was positively affected by climatic and spatial variables. Our results suggest a reciprocal link between the region’s ecological history and the patterns of beta diversity observed in scorpion assemblages from Egyptian drylands.

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