Despite the medical importance of North African scorpions, many aspects of their ecology which may be important to understand envenoming patterns throughout their range, remain understudied. The region of Souss-Massa in central Morocco exhibits a high incidence of scorpion envenomings, with 29 437 cases reported between 2005 and 2010, resulting in 32 deaths. In the present study, we provide an updated inventory of scorpions occurring throughout the Souss-Massa region, with additional information about their distribution and notes on preferred habitats for each species observed. Sampling was carried out at 39 stations over a three-year period: June and August 2020, April and June 2022, and July and August 2023. Twelve species belonging to two families were recovered over the course of the study. The families Buthidae and Scorpionidae were represented by eleven and a single species respectively. Overall, this represents 71% of all species reported to occur in the Souss-Massa region. Apart from Androctonus mauritanicus, A. bourdoni, A. sergenti and Hottentotta gentili which are present in and around human dwellings, all other species were found in uninhabited areas. Apart from Scorpio mogadorensis, all the species of scorpions we recovered can cause severe envenomation with potentially fatal outcomes. Field-based ecological investigations should be encouraged to gain a more accurate and comprehensive understanding of scorpion distribution patterns and habitat preference. In turn, this will inform the health-science community of the etiological factors responsible for scorpion envenoming.

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