The incidence of close-range firearm shootings on fishing vessels in Malaysia has been increasing every year. The challenge faced by law enforcement agencies is to demonstrate how these shooting crimes are carried out. To address this problem, a model of shooting angles and ricochets within a confined space needs to be constructed. This study examines the effects of shooting with the CZ 75 SP-01 Shadow semi-automatic pistol, manufactured by the Czech Republic, using 9mm FMJ bullets weighing 7.45 grams on three types of wood commonly used in fishing vessel construction: Resak, Seraya, and Balau. The factors of shooting distance (1, 3, 5, and 10 meters), shooting angles (15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°), ricochet angles, and the type of wood material (Resak, Seraya, and Balau) are investigated. The results indicate that only 114 out of 432 shots resulted in ricochets. Shots on Resak wood produced several bullet ricochets at shooting angles of 15° and 30° and a distance of 1 meter. An equation model relating ricochet angles and successful shots was developed. For Seraya wood, only a few ricochets were observed at a shooting angle of 15° and a distance of 1 meter, and statistical tests showed that an equation model could not be constructed. For Balau wood, an equation model relating ricochet angles and shooting distance was successfully established. Validation tests on the Resak and Balau wood models showed that the Resak model achieved an accuracy of 90%. However, the Balau wood model did not yield any reliable results and thus cannot be trusted. In conclusion, the three factors examined are insufficient to explain bullet ricochet occurrences when shooting is performed at close range in an enclosed space.

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