Sucralose (SUC), an artificial sweetener widely used in food, beverages and pharmaceuticals, is frequently detected in various environmental matrices. Triclosan (TCS) is commonly used as a disinfectant and often co-exists with SUC in sewage environments. This study investigated the effects of SUC (0.1-10mg/L) on the transmission of intracellular and extracellular antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the partial nitrification systems with and without TCS pre-exposure. The reactors operated for 150 days, and SUC did not affect ammonia oxidation performance, while TCS led to the maintenance of partial nitrification. The types and abundances of extracellular ARGs in sludge and free ARGs in water increased significantly after TCS pre-exposure when faced SUC stress, which might be caused by a decrease in α-Helix/(β-Sheet + Random coil). SUC was more easily to enrich ARGs in partial nitrification systems with TCS pre-exposure, exacerbating the risk of ARGs transmission. The microbial community showed stronger relationships to cope with the direct stress of SUC, and the functional bacteria (Thauera and Nitrosomonas) in TCS pre-exposure system might be potential hosts of ARGs. This study might provide insights for better understanding the fates of SUC in partial nitrification systems and the ecological risks in wastewater containing TCS and SUC. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATION: Sucralose (SUC) is often detected in the environment and considered as an emerging contaminant due to its soaring consumption and environmental persistence. Triclosan (TCS) is an antibacterial agent that often co-exists with SUC in personal care products and sewage environments. During 150 d, two partial nitrification reactors with and without TCS pre-exposure were established to study the effects of SUC on nitrification performance, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and microbial communities. This study showed the refractory nature of SUC, and SUC led to the transmission of extracellular ARGs in partial nitrification system with TCS pre-exposure, exacerbating the risk of ARGs dissemination.

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