Globally, greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction is a serious concern. To evaluate whether turfs serve as a GHG sink or source, GHG budget assessments for life cycle are required. However, previous studies have only focused on the use of turfs. To bridge these gaps in literature, this study investigated GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) emissions from the disposal of grass clippings and soil GHG fluxes in turfs. Additionally, GHG budgets in the turf production phase were assessed. Finally, inclusive GHG budgets from turf production to disposal of grass clippings for four turf uses (soccer stadium, golf course, office, and urban park) were assessed. Grass clippings were disposed in three forms (incineration, leaving as-is, and biochar). We found that GHG emissions from incineration and leaving 1 t-fresh weight (FW) of grass clippings were 0.711 and 0.207 t-CO2e, respectively. Contrastingly, the GHG emissions from the biochar yield from 1 t-FW of grass clippings were −0.200 t-CO2e. Further, annual soil GHG fluxes in newly established Zoysia and Kentucky bluegrass turfs were calculated at 0.067 and 0.040 tCO2e・ha-1・yr-1, respectively. As the turf grass in production fields sequester large amounts of CO2, GHG budgets in turf production phase were estimated at approximately −20 t-CO2e・ha-1・yr-1. Inclusive GHG budget assessment from turf production to disposal of grass clippings showed that turfs only in the urban parks served as a GHG sink and this ability was comparable to CO2 sequestration in forests. To enhance the ability of GHG sinks and to promote changes from a GHG source to GHG sink, our study revealed the importance of reduction of GHG emissions from energy and resource uses (especially fertilizers and gasoline) for turf management.

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