Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are a leading cause of blindness in industrialized countries, and gene therapy is quickly becoming a viable option to treat this group of diseases. Gene replacement using a viral vector has been successfully applied and advanced to commercial use for a rare group of diseases. This, and the advances in gene editing, are paving the way for the emergence of a new generation of therapies that use CRISPR–Cas9 to edit mutated genes in situ. These CRISPR-based agents can be delivered to the retina as transgenes in a viral vector, unpackaged transgenes or as proteins or messenger RNA using non-viral vectors. Although the eye is considered to be an immune-privileged organ, studies in animals, as well as evidence from clinics, have concluded that ocular gene therapies elicit an immune response that can under certain circumstances result in inflammation. In this review, we evaluate studies that have reported on pre-existing immunity, and discuss both innate and adaptive immune responses with a specific focus on immune responses to gene editing, both with non-viral and viral delivery in the ocular space. Lastly, we discuss approaches to prevent and manage the immune responses to ensure safe and efficient gene editing in the retina.
Viral Vector Viral Delivery Non-Viral Vectors Inherited Retinal Diseases Advances In Gene Editing Retinal Gene Therapy Efficient Gene Editing Gene Editing Non-Viral Delivery Vectors Gene Therapy
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No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. The conception and design of the study, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretatio...Read More
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