COVID-19 has accelerated the generation of healthcare (medical) waste throughout the world. Developing countries are the most affected by this hazardous and toxic medical waste due to poor management systems. In recent years, Bangladesh has experienced increasing medical waste generation with estimated growth of 3 % per year. The existing healthcare waste management in Bangladesh is far behind the sustainable waste management concept. To achieve an effective waste management structure, Bangladesh has to implement life cycle assessment (LCA) and circular economy (CE) concepts in this area. However, inadequate data and insufficient research in this field are the primary barriers to the establishment of an efficient medical waste management systen in Bangladesh. This study is introduced as a guidebook containing a comprehensive overview of the medical waste generation scenario, management techniques, Covid-19 impact from treatment to testing and vaccination, and the circular economy concept for sustainable waste management in Bangladesh. The estimated generation of medical waste in Bangladesh without considering the surge due to Covid-19 and other unusual medical emergencies would be approximately 50,000 tons (1.25 kg/bed/day) in 2025, out of which 12,435 tons were predicted to be hazardous waste. However, our calculation estimated that a total of 82,553, 168.4, and 2300 tons of medical waste was generated only from handling of Covid patients, test kits, and vaccination from March 2021 to May 2022. Applicability of existing guidelines, and legislation to handle the current situation and feasibility of LCA on medical waste management system to minimize environmental impact were scrutinized. Incineration with energy recovery and microwave sterilization were found to be the best treatment techniques with minimal environmental impact. A circular economy model with the concept of waste minimizaton, and value recovery was proposed for sustainable medical waste management. This study suggests proper training on healthcare waste management, proposing strict regulations, structured research allocation, and implementation of public-private partnerships to reduce, and control medical waste generation for creating a sustainable medical waste management system in Bangladesh.

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