Reintroduction of species should be based on ecological knowledge, which is fundamental to enhancing the probability of success, but also in predicting the response to future changing landscapes. The addax (Addax nasomaculatus), an endangered antelope whose ecology is mostly unknown, was released in a fenced area of the Jbil National Park, Tunisia. Considering the extreme desert conditions of the area, seasonal changes should affect both habitat and diet selection. Addax occurrence, habitat selection and diet were assessed using an integrative approach, and analysed with multivariate statistics. During the wet season, preferred and avoided plant species abundance were highly correlated with addax occurrence; while in the dry season, preferred plant species abundance were positively correlated with addax presence. Micro-histological analysis of faecal samples indicated differences in diet between seasons. The integrative approach proposed represents a useful contribution for decision-making in the scope of reintroduction programmes and habitat restoration measures, by facilitating the assessment of habitat suitability for endangered antelopes in arid environments.

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