To compare food purchasing behaviors and diet quality of foods purchased between men and women who were the primary food purchaser for their households. Food purchasing was measured via itemized receipts. The dietary composition of purchased foods was derived using the Nutrition Data System for Research and quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Men comprised 17.2% of the household primary food purchasers in the sample (n = 204). There were no differences by gender in the number of items purchased or the number of receipts. Men made fewer purchases at stores (74.0%) than did women (81.4%; P < .001). There were no gender differences in the quality of foods purchased overall or by source of purchase. In primary purchasers, purchasing behaviors varied by gender but not purchases did not. Food purchasing interventions should include both genders for greatest impact.

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