Community participation for forest sustainability and use of forest resources for community development is considered a vital way in all societies. This study was conducted to assess the public views toward sustainable forest management in the area of Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan, through collecting data from 255 respondents. Views about forest management techniques at different levels were discussed. Three main areas of focus to manage forest resources were: strategic-level management, local-level management, and communication-level management. To provide confidence and to measure factors affecting sustainable forest management, this study applied the structural equation modeling approach and built a model that explained and identified the critical factors affecting sustainable forest management. A quantitative approach via Smart Partial Least Squares version 3.2.8 was used for analysis. The findings of the study show that the R2 value of the model was 0.653, which means that the three exogenous latent constructs collectively explained 65.3% of the variance in sustainable forest management. In this study, the goodness of fit of the model was 0.431, which is considered valid for further analysis. Among the three proposed levels for forest management, the strategic-level-management factor was found the most important of the three variables. This study concluded that for better and sustainable forest management, policies should flow from the strategic level to the local and also focus on communication-level management because all these factors appear to be significant in measuring sustainable forest management. Community engagement and awareness are also found to be an important way for forest resource management.


  • Forest management is one of the key issues of countries

  • In view of the issues existing in Gilgit–Baltistan in forest management, this study aimed to present a guideline policy toolkit that will help government institutions, but it will be a principal policy toolkit for the community to look after the forest resources

  • Simulation work in calculating the effect of the observed variables and their latent constructs on sustainable forest management was drawn in Smart Partial Least Squares version 3.2.8 [51]

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Forest management is one of the key issues of countries. The sustainable management of forestry is a worldwide concern because of the importance of forest resources for the environment and for a clean society [1]. Community involvement in proper forest management has been deemed crucial [2,3]. Governments develop different policies to manage their countries’ forests for a sustainable ecosystem [4]. Public involvement is considered an important part of improved forest management [5]. Improper management of forest resources is a key issue in developing countries, posing a significant threat of damage to land and other natural resources [7]. The impact of improper forest management is limited to directly affected countries but at length spreads to the whole world [8,9]


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