We examined the association between food insecurity and total daily energy intakes in American men and women. We estimated the number of daily snacks and meals consumed by individuals in different food security categories. Also, we calculated the energy contribution, energy density, and food group sources of those snacks and meals. Using the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we examined the Food Security Survey Module (FSSM) and dietary information from the 24-h recall. Differences in energy intakes between groups were not significant. Women who were food insecure without hunger (FIWOH) and food insecure with hunger (FIWH) had significantly fewer meals than food secure (FS) women. The energy contribution of each meal and the total energy contributed from snacking were both significantly greater for FIWOH women than for FS women. The number of meals was significantly lower whereas the daily number of snacking occasions and the total energy from snacking were significantly increased for FIWOH men relative to FS men. FIWOH men consumed snack foods that had significantly lower energy density than those consumed by FS men. Among men and women, the major sources of meal energy were the grain group, the meat, poultry, and fish group, and the sugar, sweets, and beverages group whereas the major source of snacking energy was the sugar, sweets, and beverages group. Total energy intakes were not different for FI individuals; however, their meal and snack behaviors were different. Focusing solely on total energy intake would miss important consequences of food insecurity.

Full Text

Published Version
Open DOI Link

Get access to 115M+ research papers

Discover from 40M+ Open access, 2M+ Pre-prints, 9.5M Topics and 32K+ Journals.

Sign Up Now! It's FREE

Talk to us

Join us for a 30 min session where you can share your feedback and ask us any queries you have

Schedule a call