G. L. McClymont developed a unique paradigm in which to consider the challenges that confront agriculture and it is based on an understanding of the interrelationships of plants, animals, soils and water within an economic and social framework. The major changes in our environment are the consequence of rapid population growth and the need to increase world food supplies. Within this context, this paper provides an overview of the link between agriculture, especially animal production and population health and how mycotoxins, fungal secondary metabolites, can perturb this link. Examples from New Zealand and Australian animal agriculture are described. The underlying premise of this paper is that agriculture is a major determinant of human health through the supply of food derived from both plant and animal sources. In other words, nutrition is the conduit between agriculture and human health. Against this backdrop the potential role of mycotoxins in determining food and feed supplies is discussed. Globally, mycotoxins have significant human and animal health, economic and international trade implications.

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