International Journal of Ophthalmology | VOL. 15
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Feasibility of telemedicine program using a hand-held nonmydriatic retinal camera in Panama

Publication Date Jun 18, 2022

Abstract

AIM: To evaluate the image quality of a telemedicine screening program for retinal disease using a nonmydriatic camera among rural island communities in Bocas del Toro, Panama. METHODS: In June 2018, a group of three medical students volunteered at clinics operated by the Floating Doctors in the province of Bocas del Toro, Panama. Non-mydriatic images of the retina were obtained using the Pictor Plus (Volk Optical, Mentor OH), randomized, and sent to two board-certified ophthalmologists at the University of California, Irvine for analysis using a modified version of the FOTO-ED scale. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using the kappa statistic. RESULTS: Seventy patients provided a total of 127 images. Average image quality was 3.31, and most frequent image quality was 4/5 on the FOTO-ED scale. Thirty patients had at least one eye image with ideal quality (42.86%), while only one patient had no adequate photos taken (1.43%). However, high quality images were obtained in both eyes in only 12 patients (17.14%). The inter-rater reliability between the two ophthalmologists was 0.614. CONCLUSION: Further improvements are necessary to acquire higher quality images more reliably. This may include further training and experience or mydriasis.

Concepts
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Nonmydriatic Camera
Rural Island Communities
Average Image Quality
Inter-rater Reliability
Board-certified Ophthalmologists
Ideal Quality
Image Quality
High Quality Images
Eye Image
University Of California

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