The mechanism of interaction between economic development, industrial structure and anthropogenic carbon emissions has become one of the focuses of climate change research. In this investigation, Henan Province was studied as an example, wherein the calculation model of carbon emissions in the primary, secondary and tertiary economic sectors was built using the ArcGIS 10.1 software. The spatiotemporal difference of carbon emissions between 2006 and 2015 from the three sectors was studied. The relation between economic development and environmental protection is discussed, based on the construction of a coordination degree model. Conclusions drawn from this analysis are: (1) In 2015, China’s total carbon emissions reached 10,291.93 × 107 t and Henan’s carbon emissions accounted for 1.96% of China’s total carbon emissions. The total carbon emissions in Henan Province increased more than 25.00% between 2006 and 2015. (2) Carbon emissions from different economic sectors demonstrated varied patterns. The primary sector presented a gradual decreasing trend in carbon emission, while the secondary sector showed a fluctuating pattern and the tertiary sector had an inclining trend in carbon emission. (3) There are also disparities in the spatial distribution of carbon emissions from different economic sectors. The primary and tertiary sectors had higher emissions in the southeast and lower emissions in the northwest regions, while the secondary sector showed higher emissions in the northwest and lower emissions in the southeast Between cities at different prefecture levels, differences do not only lie on the quantity of carbon emissions from the three sectors of economy but also a larger variation with regards to the change in quantity of carbon emissions. (4) The coordination degree of economic development was low among different prefecture-level cities. The economic and environmental development appeared coordinated among cities at the same prefecture level; however, coordination degrees among different prefecture-level cities varies significantly.

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