This chapter outlines the environmental aspects of kenaf production and utilization, focusing on the impact on biotic and abiotic resources, through the analysis of the crop’s interaction with its environment and management practices. In this study, the assessment of data retrieved from literature was supplemented with results obtained from the Biokenaf project. As a bioenergy and biomaterials carrier, kenaf offers ecological advantages over fossil sources by contributing to reduction of greenhouse gases and energy savings. Nevertheless, a negative impact may be perceived in terms of acidifying emissions. Although the different indicators did not yield a common pattern, overall results suggest that kenaf crop have an advantage over other annual energy crop systems, namely regarding pesticides and fertilizers inputs. However, risks associated with soil quality, erodibility, use of resources, and biodiversity are equivalent to most annual energy crops. Crop management options can influence the outcomes, but site specific factors should be accurately assessed to evaluate the adequacy between crop and location. In addition, environmental hot spots in the systems are detected and options for improvement are presented.

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