Patricia K. Coyle, Mustafa A. Hammad, and Firas G. Saleh Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Health Sciences Center, StonyBrook State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York, U.S.A.1. INTRODUCTIONLyme disease is a tick-borne infection caused by bacterial spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group. Except for rare congenital cases, all documented transmissions involve the bite of Ixodes species ticks. Clinical manifestations encompass suggestive syndromes of skin, musculoskeletal, heart, and nervous systems, often accompanied by multiple nonspecific systemic complaints. Rare cases may show ocular, lymphatic, liver, renal, or even pulmonary disease (1).

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