PLoS Medicine | VOL. 8
Read

Energy Density, Portion Size, and Eating Occasions: Contributions to Increased Energy Intake in the United States, 1977–2006

Publication Date Jun 28, 2011

Abstract

Competing theories attempt to explain changes in total energy (TE) intake; however, a rigorous, comprehensive examination of these explanations has not been undertaken. Our objective was to examine the relative contribution of energy density (ED), portion size (PS), and the number of eating/drinking occasions (EOs) to changes in daily TE. Using cross-sectional nationally representative data from the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (1977-78), Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (1989-91), and National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1994-98 and 2003-06) for adults (aged ≥19 y), we mathematically decompose TE (kcal/d) to understand the relative contributions of each component-PS (grams/EO), ED (kcal/g/EO) and EO(number)-to changes in TE over time. There was an increase in TE intake (+570 kcal/d) and the number of daily EOs (+1.1) between 1977-78 and 2003-06. The average PS increased between 1977-78 and 1994-98, then dropped slightly between 1994-98 and 2003-06, while the average ED remained steady between 1977-78 and 1989-91, then declined slightly between 1989-91 and 1994-98. Estimates from the decomposition statistical models suggest that between 1977-78 and 1989-91, annualized changes in PS contributed nearly 15 kcal/d/y to increases in TE, while changes in EO accounted for just 4 kcal/d/y. Between 1994-98 and 2003-06 changes in EO accounted for 39 kcal/d/y of increase and changes in PS accounted for 1 kcal/d/y of decline in the annualized change in TE. While all three components have contributed t...

Concepts

Changes In Total Energy Total Energy Intake Portion Size Increase In Total Energy Intake Nationwide Food Consumption Survey Total Energy Energy Density Nutrition Examination Surveys Changes In Energy Intake US Adults

Round-ups are the summaries of handpicked papers around trending topics published every week. These would enable you to scan through a collection of papers and decide if the paper is relevant to you before actually investing time into reading it.

Climate change Research Articles published between Jan 16, 2023 to Jan 22, 2023

R DiscoveryJan 23, 2023
R DiscoveryArticles Included:  5

Carbon capture and utilization (CCU) is an emerging technology with commercial potential to convert atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) into net zero or ...

Read More

Quality Of Education Research Articles published between Jan 16, 2023 to Jan 22, 2023

R DiscoveryJan 23, 2023
R DiscoveryArticles Included:  2

Introduction: The Educational Scholar Program (ESP) is a creative method to focus on the quality of education and the scholarship of education. The ed...

Read More

Gender Equality Research Articles published between Jan 16, 2023 to Jan 22, 2023

R DiscoveryJan 23, 2023
R DiscoveryArticles Included:  5

This study deviates from the predominantly feminist/critical school of thought associated with existing gender studies to apply an interpretivist appr...

Read More

Coronavirus Pandemic

You can also read COVID related content on R COVID-19

R ProductsCOVID-19

ONE PROBLEM . ONE PURPOSE . ONE PLACE

Creating the world’s largest AI-driven & human-curated collection of research, news, expert recommendations and educational resources on COVID-19

COVID-19 Dashboard

Disclaimer: All third-party content on this website/platform is and will remain the property of their respective owners and is provided on “as is” basis without any warranties, express or implied. Use of third-party content does not indicate any affiliation, sponsorship with or endorsement by them. Any references to third-party content is to identify the corresponding services and shall be considered fair use under The Copyright Law.