Journal of Cleaner Production | VOL. 142
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Empirical carbon dioxide emissions of electric vehicles in a French-German commuter fleet test

Publication Date Jan 1, 2017

Abstract

According to many governments electric vehicles are seen as an efficient mean to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions in the transport sector. However, the energy charged causes carbon dioxide emissions in the energy sector. This study demonstrates results from measuring time-dependent electricity consumption of electric vehicles during driving and charging. The electric vehicles were used in a French-German commuter scenario between March and August 2013. The electric vehicles ran a total distance of 38,365 km. 639 individual charging events were recorded. Vehicle specific data on electricity consumption are matched to disaggregated electricity generation data with time-dependent national electricity generation mixes and corresponding carbon dioxide emissions with an hourly time resolution. Carbon dioxide emission reduction potentials of different charging strategies are identified. As carbon dioxide emission intensities change over time according to the electric power systems, specific smart charging services are a convincing strategy to reduce electric vehicle specific carbon dioxide emissions. Our results indicate that charging in France causes only about ten percent of the carbon dioxide emissions compared to Germany, where the carbon intensity is more diverse.

Concepts
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Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Electric Vehicles
Vehicle Specific Data
Charging Strategies
Carbon Intensity
Transport Sector
Energy Sector
Electricity Consumption
Electricity Generation
Time Resolution

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