Fresh water is one of the basic needs in daily life where the sources are shrinking due to pollution and climate change. Sea water desalination system is one of the potential solutions that can minimize the scarcity of fresh water. Solar energy is one of the promising renewable energies that can be used for water desalination system. The concepts of solar water desalination system, energy conversion from solar irradiation to thermal energy, and different types of solar thermal collectors are the leading technologies. Solar water desalination is also natural, abundant, environment-friendly than the conventional processes. This chapter describes the different types of solar water desalination system, geometrical shapes, modeling of different types of desalination processes, solar thermal processes, thermal collectors, energy conversion, and performance analysis.

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