Malnutrition, resulting from micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamin A, folate, and iron, is and will continue to be, one of the greatest challenges of our world for the next century. One way to address this challenge is the development of food crops through the use of agricultural biotechnology that are rich in vitamins and minerals. The following chapter explores the use of genetic engineering strategies, including transgenesis, RNA interference, and genome editing to create the next generation of biotech crops that can improve the nutritional status of the rural poor in developing countries. The chapter provides a series of examples of crops that have been biofortified through biotechnology, including rice, banana, potato, cassava, and sorghum. Nutritionally enhanced food crops, including tomato, false flax, and Brassica species are also discussed. The chapter ends with a discussion of the potential of biotechnology to provide a more nutritionally secure world.

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