Vanadium metal is widely spread in various environments and has essential roles in biological systems. Vanadium based compounds have been proposed for cancer as a new category of non platinum metal anticancer drugs. Vanadium compounds activate transcription factors and signaling pathways in cells, which can potentiate their therapeutic applications. Additionally, these complexes exhibit potential antitumor effects by hindering cellular tyrosine phosphatases or stimulating tyrosine phosphorylases in different cell lines. These effects trigger cellular signal transduction pathways, culminating in apoptosis and the activation of genes that suppress tumor growth, cell-cycle arrest, cytotoxic effects, and modulation of cellular adhesive molecules. However, the knowledge of vanadium complexes effects on cell signaling pathways in cancer cells is limited. Understanding these pathways is crucial for identifying molecular targets that are responsible for the anticancer activity of vanadium complexes. The low toxicity of vanadium, combined with the advancement of more powerful and well tolerated complexes, could position it as a promising non-platinum metal agent for combating tumors.

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