Abstract

Metabolic processes in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms are often modulated by kinases which are in turn, dependent on Ca2+ and the cyclic mononucleotides cAMP and cGMP. It has been established that some proteins have both kinase and cyclase activities and that active cyclases can be embedded within the kinase domains. Here, we identified phosphodiesterase (PDE) sites, enzymes that hydrolyse cAMP and cGMP, to AMP and GMP, respectively, in some of these proteins in addition to their kinase/cyclase twin-architecture. As an example, we tested the Arabidopsis thaliana KINγ, a subunit of the SnRK2 kinase, to demonstrate that all three enzymatic centres, adenylate cyclase (AC), guanylate cyclase (GC) and PDE, are catalytically active, capable of generating and hydrolysing cAMP and cGMP. These data imply that the signal output of the KINγ subunit modulates SnRK2, consequently affecting the downstream kinome. Finally, we propose a model where a single protein subunit, KINγ, is capable of regulating cyclic mononucleotide homeostasis, thereby tuning stimulus specific signal output.

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