Abstract

This paper considered the disaster and school education from philosophical perspectives: 1) Brian Denman proposed the paradigm change of the educational research from individual to society with his new concept “education security.” It was clarified that we would be able to take this idea to examine the foundation for school education after the disaster. 2) John Dewey wrote that society existed through a process of transmission quite as much as biological life. This transmission occurred by means of communication of habits of doing, thinking, and feeling from the older to the younger. Without education as communication, social life could not survive. We should consider this Dewey’s insight into education and society again in order to create a new basis of school education after 3. 11. 3) It was suggested that we would need to consider a broader philosophical idea behind the phenomena, namely to think about the structure of dependence. The disaster thrust the limitations of the modern values of independence and individualism before us. Although the notion of dependence was usually referred to a negative meaning such as amae in Japanese, we would be able to reinterpret the idea of “depending on each other” positively. supplementary budget of 421.1 billion yen was prepared for the restoration works for the public schools in the 2011 fiscal year, 15.1 billion yen in the 2012 fiscal year. It is unable to figure out at once how serious situations were shown by these numbers of schools and the size of the budget. When we face the fact, however, that more than 700 children were killed or missing, we only grieve for that. Not only these numbers but also plenty of astonishing visual records and photographs reported by the mass media just after the disaster straightly indicate its enormous violence. Furthermore, when we know that 18,368 students in Fukushima Prefecture lost their schools and had to move to other schools, we are lost for words. It is compared to that more than 80 elementary schools disappeared in Fukushima Prefecture, if we calculate with the numbers of elementary students and schools, and the average number of the students per school. Japanese Association of School Education responded to the harsh reality caused by the disaster and published a book The East Japan Great Earthquake and School Education3 within one year after the Earthquake as a result of investigation project. The disaster was thought back in the book, and it was pointed out that each person’s self-judgment and selfhelp (tendenko) was quite important contrary to conforming behavior as an evacuation principle at schools, and successful experiences in this disaster should be relativized. The project also made it clear that reconsideration of the fundamental significance of school education was initiated at this opportunity. That is a rediscovery of school’s attraction for remaking the community through children’s education and prospects for the future as well as a self-examination of Japanese modern education. They start considering the school’s role as an emotional support for people in the community and a foothold for creating local culture, which is nothing other than a demonstration of the will to reconstruct. 2. Education Security as a New Concept: From Individual to Society The framework for Australian comparative educationist Brian Denman’s concept of education security consists of educational access, equity and quality of education. The issues of educational access, such as UNESCO’s campaign of education for all: EFA, relate to the elimination of education poverty, which is considered as education security. The issues of exclusivity and inclusivity refer to educational access and equity. Education security aims at inclusivity. With the belief that “fair and inclusive education is one of the most powerful levers available for making societies more equitable, innovative, and democratic4,” it makes education “open to all.” In terms of the issues of quality of education, the objective is the transference from quantitative indicators with numerical expression by tests to qualitative ones. The concept of education security suggests an expansion of the perspective for considering the practice of education. As the figure indicates, education security consists of security of food, economy, health, person, politics environment, community and school education. School education is just one of the aspects for education security, which means we have to take all the aspects into consideration in order to examine school education. Let us pay attention to inclusivity of education in this paper. Denman points out that exclusivity often conjures up notions of elitist models that promote and maintain social class levels, most often with the individual student having to pay for his or her education (user-pays)5. It is generally considered a Western model; quality of education through contest and merit in educational performance, which suggests that education is an investment. On the contrary, inclusivity in education claims a change of direction from the notion of benefit of education for individual to the one for society. Denman’s argument refers to the relationship between higher education and economy in developing countries as important concrete realities for the justification of the direction change. At the same time, he extends the idea to education in general and tries to connect it to the notion of new publicness. He says, “The challenge is in recognizing that education security also pertains to the long-term benefits of 280Satoshi HIGUCHI

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