Semantic segmentation network-based methods can detect concrete damage at the pixel level. However, the performance of a single semantic segmentation network is often limited. To improve the concrete damage detection performance of a semantic segmentation network, a stacking ensemble learning-based concrete crack detection method using multiple semantic segmentation networks is proposed. To realize this method, a database including 500 images and their labels with concrete crack and spalling is built and divided into training and testing sets. At first, the training and prediction of five semantic segmentation networks (FCN-8s, SegNet, U-Net, PSPNet and DeepLabv3+) are respectively implemented on the built training set according to a five-fold cross-validation principle, where 80% of the training images are used in the training process, and 20% training images are reserved. Then, in predicting the results of reserved training images from trained semantic segmentation networks, the class labels of all pixels are collected, and then four softmax regression-based ensemble learning models are trained using the collected class labels and their true classification labels. The trained ensemble learning models are applied to regressed testing results of semantic segmentation network models. Compared with the best single semantic segmentation network, the best ensemble learning model provides performance improvement of 0.21% PA, 0.54% MPA, 3.66% MIoU, and 0.12% FWIoU, respectively. The study results show that the stacking ensemble learning strategy can indeed improve concrete damage detection performance through ensemble learning of multiple semantic segmentation networks.

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