While energy-related sectors remain significant contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, biogas production from waste through anaerobic digestion (AD) helps to increase renewable energy production. The biogas production players focus efforts on optimising the AD process to maximise the methane content in biogas, improving known technologies for biogas production and applying newly invented ones: H2 addition technology, high-pressure anaerobic digestion technology, bioelectrochemical technology, the addition of additives, and others. Though increased methane concentration in biogas gives benefits, biogas upgrading still needs to reach a much higher methane concentration to replace natural gas. There are many biogas upgrading technologies, but almost any has methane slip. This research conducted a life cycle assessment (LCA) on membrane-based biogas upgrading technology, evaluating biomethane production from biogas with variable methane concentrations. The results showed that the increase in methane concentration in the biogas slightly increases the specific electricity consumption for biogas treatment, but heightens methane slip with off-gas in the biogas upgrading unit. However, the LCA analysis showed a positive environmental impact for treating biogas with increasing methane concentrations. This way, the LCA analysis gave a broader comprehension of the environmental impact of biogas upgrading technology on GHG emissions and offered valuable insights into the environmental implications of biomethane production.

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