A unique energy-independent house (‘HARBEMAN house’; HARmony BEtween Man And Nature) incorporating solar thermal, underground coolers, sky radiation cooling, photovoltaic electricity generation and rain-water collection was built in Sendai (latitude; 38 17 0 00 00 north and longitude; 140 50 0 14 00 east), Japan during July, 1996. The average solar energy received on a horizontal surface there in January is 7900 kJ/m 2 /day. This paper reports the experimental results since September 1996 to date. The annual variations of water temperature in the underground main tank, heating /cooling/domestic hot water demands, collected and emitted heats by solar collector and sky radiator, were measured. The paper also clarifies the method of computer simulation results for the HARBEMAN house and its results compared with the annual experimental data. The proposed HARBEMAN house, which meets almost all its energy demands, including space heating and cooling, domestic hot water, electricity generated by photovoltaic cell and rainwater for standard Japanese homes. The proposed system has two operational modes: (i) a long-term thermal energy storage mode extending from September to March and (ii) a long-term cool storage mode extending from April to August. The system is intended to utilize as little energy as possible to collect and emit the heat. This paper also clarifies the primary energy consumption, the external costs (externalities) and the means for the reduction of carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions. The primary-energy consumption and carbon-dioxide emissions of the proposed house are only onetenth of those of the conventional standard house. Moreover, the thermal performance of this house will be compared with the results of the IEA solar low-energy house TASK 13. Finally, this paper validates the external costs of this house, which have been intensively discussed in recent years in European countries. The present energy-suAcient house will be attempting in 21st century to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, which will be one of the key factors for mitigating global warming. # 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

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