The introduction of mal-adapted genotype is a major concern in conservation and management of forest genetic resources. This is risky because it potentially threatens the integrity of the natural genetic structure of populations. Therefore, it is necessary to provide guidance on the choice of appropriate germplasm and determine how far it can be moved from its native environment. The most basic guidelines for germplasm movement involve the use of Regions of Provenance (RoP). The RoP for a forest species or sub-species is the area or group of areas subject to sufficiently uniform ecological conditions in which stands or seed sources showing similar phenotypic or genetic characters are found, taking into account altitudinal boundaries where appropriate. However, there is little information concerning Regions of Provenance and limited knowledge about safe limits to the movement of seed, cuttings and planting stock in Morocco. This paper establishes a conceptual framework based on Regions of Provenance that is designed to better understand, protect and use forest genetic resources in Morocco, especially the species for which no specific knowledge on local adaptation or no data about population differentiation are currently available. This is the first study that represents a precise map of Regions of Provenance for Moroccan forest reproductive material and that provides detailed description on topographical, environmental and forest characteristics that characterize each Region of Provenance, by using geographical information system (GIS) techniques. A biogeography-based approach was applied and revealed that the territory was hierarchically organized into 2 Biogeographic Divisions, 9 Biogeographic Units and 19 Regions of Provenance. The RoP proposed are intended as a practical provenance decision-making tool to guide the movement of forest reproductive material in Morocco. This ensures the traceability of planting stock throughout the harvesting-seedling production-plantation process to a specified Forest Basic Material.

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