AbstractToday, almost 60% of the petroleum consumed in the United States is imported. The U.S. transportation sector currently consumes for over two‐thirds of the 11 million barrels of oil used in the U.S. each day. Global demand for transportation fuels is increasing dramatically as developing countries expand their economies and become more energy intensive. Clean energy systems are needed to support sustainable global economic growth while mitigating impacts on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. Biofuels offer a near‐term solution for reducing U.S. oil consumption. Transitioning to a significantly larger biofuels industry will require the creation of a robust biomass‐to‐biofuels system of systems that operates in concert with the existing agriculture, forestry, energy and transportation markets. Using the fuel supply chain infrastructure as a framework, the current petroleum‐based transportation economy, a vision for biomass‐based fuels and the challenges associated with such a massive market and infrastructure transformation are discussed.

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