The article highlights the reasons that served the origin and development of the concepts of “entrepreneur” and “entrepreneurship”. After defining the essence of the concepts of “entrepreneur” and “entrepreneurship” within the framework of the main schools in the history of economic theory that considered these economic categories, a brief description of modern theories of entrepreneurship is given and their relationship with other provisions of economic theory is illustrated. The first direction focuses on the rationally maximizing approach of the entrepreneur, and subsequently the firm. The second direction defines an entrepreneur as an irrationally acting individual in search of a new combination of resources in response to changes in the socio-economic context (based on the Schumpeterian approach).

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