Abstract

In this article, we treat migration and the ensuing interaction between various ethnicities as a significant and permanent factor of global history. Special attention is paid to the impact migration has on ethnosocial processes. Siberia as a region of Russia has a positive experience of the impact of large waves of Russian migrants on the ethnosocial development of indigenous peoples of Siberia, as it can be seen from a retrospective analysis of migration statistics and facts. The contemporary socioeconomic and ethnocultural status of Siberia is largely a product of migration processes. In general, the ethnosocial situation in Siberia has always been relatively stable. In the post-Soviet period the influence of migration has shaped new tendencies in the ethnic structure of the Siberian population. They include a decrease in overall number and percentage of representatives of Slavic ethnicities, an increase in the overall number of Turkic people, an increase in overall number and percentage of indigenous population in their respective regions and a significant rise in the number of those representing Turkic ethnicities with their statehood outside Russia. All of these led to the consolidation of Turkic ethnodemographic component and the narrowing of the Russian one. In many regions, this is accompanied by territorial shrinkages of the Russian population. Interethnic contacts have become more complicated, and migration processes on the whole are viewed by the local population as a common threat to their social security. The outcomes of the mass polls and expert surveys held by a team led by Yu. V. Popkov in several Siberian regions over the 2000s show that it is with migrants that local population associate the existing tension in interethnic relations. Experts have mentioned increased number of migrants as one of the major causes of strained relations between people of various ethnicities. Other conspicuous changes in ethnosocial situation include the ethnization of neighborhoods and businesses (up to 39% in certain branches of economy). This is also typical primarily for migrants. The prospects of easing the interethnic tension lie, firstly, in regularization of spontaneous migration which was characteristic of the 1990s and 2000s, and secondly, in the government’s focus on satisfying the needs of local population and on helping them (and not only migrants) adapt to the new ethnosocial situation they are experiencing.

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