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Sustainable refrigeration technology selection: An innovative DEA-TOPSIS hybrid model

This study proposes a novel multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) framework aimed at selecting refrigeration technologies that are both carbon- and energy-efficient, aligning with the UK's net-zero policies and the UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Addressing the challenge of a limited number of competing technologies and the need to incorporate diverse stakeholders’ perspectives, we design a hybrid DEA-TOPSIS approach utilizing the Feasible Super-Efficiency Slacks-Based Algorithm (FSESBA). FSESBA proves invaluable, especially in scenarios involving super-efficiency or efficiency trend measurement, where addressing undesirable factors may lead to the well-known infeasibility problem. While we establish the theoretical soundness of the DEA-TOPSIS model, we validate the efficacy of our proposed approach through comparative analysis with conventional methods. Subsequently, we evaluate the choices of present and upcoming refrigeration technologies at a leading UK supermarket. Our findings reveal a shift from prevalent HFO-based technologies in 2020 to CO2-based technologies by 2035, attributed to their lower energy usage and GHG emissions. In addition, maintaining current refrigeration systems could contribute to achieving international and national targets to decrease F-Gas refrigerant usage, although net-zero targets will remain out of reach. In summary, our research findings underscore the potential of the introduced model to reinforce the adoption of novel refrigeration system technology, offering valuable support for the UK SDGs taskforces and net-zero policy formulation.

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Portable Arduino-Based Multi-Sensor Device (SBEDAD): Measuring the Built Environment in Street Cycling Spaces.

The built environment's impact on human activities has been a hot issue in urban research. Compared to motorized spaces, the built environment of pedestrian and cycling street spaces dramatically influences people's travel experience and travel mode choice. The streets' built environment data play a vital role in urban design and management. However, the multi-source, heterogeneous, and massive data acquisition methods and tools for the built environment have become obstacles for urban design and management. To better realize the data acquisition and for deeper understanding of the urban built environment, this study develops a new portable, low-cost Arduino-based multi-sensor array integrated into a single portable unit for built environment measurements of street cycling spaces. The system consists of five sensors and an Arduino Mega board, aimed at measuring the characteristics of the street cycling space. It takes air quality, human sensation, road quality, and greenery as the detection objects. An integrated particulate matter laser sensor, a light intensity sensor, a temperature and humidity sensor, noise sensors, and an 8K panoramic camera are used for multi-source data acquisition in the street. The device has a mobile power supply display and a secure digital card to improve its portability. The study took Beijing as a sample case. A total of 127.97 G of video data and 4794 Kb of txt records were acquired in 36 working hours using the street built environment data acquisition device. The efficiency rose to 8474.21% compared to last year. As an alternative to conventional hardware used for this similar purpose, the device avoids the need to carry multiple types and models of sensing devices, making it possible to target multi-sensor data-based street built environment research. Second, the device's power and storage capabilities make it portable, independent, and scalable, accelerating self-motivated development. Third, it dramatically reduces the cost. The device provides a methodological and technological basis for conceptualizing new research scenarios and potential applications.

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An Adaptive Dual-Mode Task-Oriented Resource Management Strategy for GEO Relay Systems

With the fierce global competition on satellite networks, the building of satellite constellations grows explosively. Sharply increasing on-orbit data will face the challenge of satellite-ground data transmission. GEO satellites become the top choice for satellite data relay due to their stable satellite-ground link. Most existing spectrum resource management for GEO relays is equipment-oriented and benefit priority, which may lead to a waste of spectrum resources. In this paper, we propose a real-time task-oriented resource allocation strategy for GEO relay systems. We model the spectrum allocation problem as a distributed non-cooperative Stackelberg game process. We prove that when both sides of the game pursue the maximization of personal revenue, the system will enter a Nash equilibrium state, whereas spectrum resources are not fully used. Based on the maximization of individual utilities (U-prior) and spectrum utilization (S-prior) methods, we design an adaptive dual-mode pricing mode to maximize the spectrum resources within a certain loss of revenue. The simulation results show that the S-prior and U-prior have better performance than the baseline method and existing optimization methods. Our proposed dual-mode strategy is making more throughputs and has less delay with little loss of utility values than that of individual utility maximization.

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Multi-Objective Integrated Robust Optimal Control for Wastewater Treatment Processes

Multi-objective optimal control is widely applied in wastewater treatment processes (WWTPs) to ensure the security and stability of the operation processes. However, for the existing stepwise multi-objective optimal control (SMOC) algorithms, the unknown disturbances will further influence the obtain of set-points and the design of control laws, which may degrade the control performance and operation performance of WWTPs. Aim at the above-mentioned problem, this study presents a multi-objective integrated robust optimal control (MIROC) method for WWTPs. The merits of MIROC are three folds. First, a model approximator is designed to capture the nonlinear dynamics of WWTPs. Second, a disturbance observer is utilized to describe the disturbances of WWTPs. Then, based on the model approximator and disturbance observer, a more accurate prediction model of WWTPs with disturbances is established. Third, under the framework of multi-objective model predictive control (MMPC), a MIROC structure with a cooperative cost function (CCF) and a gradient-based multi-objective optimization algorithm (GMOA) is developed to coordinate optimization and control solution of WWTPs with unknown disturbances. Finally, the stability analysis of MIROC is provided in theory. Meanwhile, the results on the benchmark simulation platform demonstrate that MIROC can improve the performance of WWTPs. <italic xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">Note to Practitioners</i> —The SMOC algorithms may degrade the performance of WWTPs with the unknown disturbances. In the paper, a MIROC scheme is presented for WWTPs with the unknown disturbances. Three key parts are contained, the model approximator, the disturbance observer and the MIROC structure. A prediction model of WWTPs with disturbances is established with the model approximator and the disturbance observer. Then, the model approximator and the disturbance observer are applied to improve modeling accuracy of MIROC. Based on the prediction model of WWTPs, a MIROC structure is designed to comprehensively analyze the optimization process and control process of WWTPs with the unknown disturbances. Then, MIROC structure is composed of a CCF and a GMOA. Finally, the results on an industrial application of WWTPs demonstrate that MIROC can achieve optimal operation of WWTPs.

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