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Relugolix/Estradiol/Norethisterone Acetate: A Review in Endometriosis-Associated Pain.

An oral fixed-dose combination of relugolix/estradiol/norethisterone (also known as norethindrone) acetate [Myfembree® (USA); Ryeqo® (EU)] (hereafter referred to as relugolix combination therapy) has been approved in the USA for the management of moderate to severe pain associated with endometriosis in premenopausal women and in the EU for the symptomatic treatment of endometriosis in adult women of reproductive age with a history of previous medical or surgical treatment for their endometriosis. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor antagonist relugolix decreases estradiol and progesterone levels, while the addition of estradiol/norethisterone acetate mitigates hypoestrogenic effects including bone mineral density (BMD) loss and vasomotor symptoms. In two pivotal phaseIII trials, relugolix combination therapy significantly improved dysmenorrhoea and non-menstrual pelvic pain in premenopausal women with moderate to severe endometriosis. The combination also reduced overall pelvic pain and dyspareunia, reduced analgesic and opioid use, and improved health-related quality of life. The efficacy of relugolix combination therapy was sustained over the longer term (up to 2years). Relugolix combination therapy was generally well tolerated and BMD loss over time was minimal. With the convenience of a once daily oral dosing regimen, relugolix combination therapy is a valuable addition to the options currently available for the management of endometriosis-associated pain.

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Perfluorohexyloctane Ophthalmic Solution: A Review in Dry Eye Disease.

Perfluorohexyloctane ophthalmic solution (Miebo®) is a single-entity, water-, steroid- and preservative-free, first-in-class semifluorinated alkane that is approved in the USA for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED). DED is often linked with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), which causes an excessive evaporation of tears. Perfluorohexyloctane ophthalmic solution stabilizes the lipid layer of the tear film and inhibits tear evaporation by forming a monolayer at the air-liquid interface. In the phase III GOBI and MOJAVE trials in adults with DED associated with MGD, one drop of perfluorohexyloctane ophthalmic solution instilled in each eye four times daily over 8 weeks resulted in statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in the signs and symptoms of DED compared with hypotonic saline (0.6%). The agent was generally well tolerated, with most ocular adverse events being mild or moderate in severity. The efficacy and tolerability of perfluorohexyloctane ophthalmic solution was sustained for up to 52 weeks in an extension study (KALAHARI). As the first and currently the only prescription treatment approved in the USA directly addressing the pathophysiology of excessive tear evaporation, perfluorohexyloctane ophthalmic solution is a valuable emerging option for the management of DED.

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Drugs Targeting CD20 in Multiple Sclerosis: Pharmacology, Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability.

Currently, there are four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target the cluster of differentiation (CD) 20 receptor available to treat multiple sclerosis (MS): rituximab, ocrelizumab, ofatumumab, and ublituximab. B-cell depletion therapy has changed the therapeutic landscape of MS through robust efficacy on clinical manifestations and MRI lesion activity, and the currently available anti-CD20 mAb therapies for use in MS are a cornerstone of highly effective disease-modifying treatment. Ocrelizumab is currently the only therapy with regulatory approval for primary progressive MS. There are currently few data regarding the relative efficacy of these therapies, though several clinical trials are ongoing. Safety concerns applicable to this class of therapeutics relate primarily to immunogenicity and mechanism of action, and include infusion-related or injection-related reactions, development of hypogammaglobulinemia (leading to increased infection and malignancy risk), and decreased vaccine response. Exploration of alternative dose/dosing schedules might be an effective strategy for mitigating these risks. Future development of biosimilar medications might make these therapies more readily available. Although anti-CD20 mAb therapies have led to significant improvements in disease outcomes, CNS-penetrant therapies are still needed to more effectively address the compartmentalized inflammation thought to play an important role in disability progression.

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Comparative Efficacy of Drug Interventions on NAFLD Over 24 Weeks: A Traditional and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), currently referred to as metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD), affects approximately 38% of the world's population, yet no pharmacological therapies have been approved for treatment. We conducted a traditional and network meta-analysis to comprehensively assess the effectiveness of drug regimens on NAFLD, and continued to use the old terminology for consistency. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) investigating drug therapy in an adult population diagnosed with NAFLD with or without diabetes mellitus were included. We assessed the quality of RCTs via the Risk of Bias 2 (ROB 2) tool. When I2 < 50%, we chose a random-effects model, otherwise a fixed-effects model was selected. A random effects model was applied in the network meta-analysis. The odds ratio (OR), weighted mean difference (WMD) or standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for outcome evaluation. The primary endpoint was the resolution of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) without the worsening of liver fibrosis. Other endpoints included histological findings and metabolic changes. The PROSPERO Registration ID was CRD42023404309. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), vitamin E plus pioglitazone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) analogue had a higher surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA = 76.6, 73.0, 72.0 and 71.6) regarding NASH resolution. Improvement of liver fibrosis stage (≥ 1) was observed with obeticholic acid 25mg/day (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.35-2.98), lanifibranor 1200mg/day (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.19-4.82) and silymarin (OR 4.54, 95% CI 1.18-17.43) in traditional meta-analysis. The results of the comprehensive analysis suggested hypoglycemic drug therapy as an effective intervention for NAFLD, with or without diabetes mellitus. A prioritized selection of TZDs, vitamin E plus pioglitazone, GLP-1 receptor agonists and FGF-21 analogue may be considered for NASH resolution. Obeticholic acid, lanifibranor and silymarin could be considered for the improvement of liver fibrosis. Each medication was relatively safe compared with placebo.

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