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Prognostic indicators of corneal ulcer clinical outcomes at a tertiary care center in the Bronx, New York

PurposeCorneal ulcers frequently result in ocular morbidity and may lead to permanent visual impairment if severe or untreated. This study aims to evaluate the association of patient factors and ocular exam findings on clinical outcomes for patients diagnosed with a corneal ulcer at a tertiary care center in the Bronx, New York.MethodsA retrospective chart review was conducted on all ambulatory and admitted patients diagnosed with a corneal ulcer (identified using ICD-10 code H16.0) at Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY between 2016–2022. Patient demographics, presence of known risk factors, characteristics of subsequent clinical course, and microbiological studies were noted. Clinical outcomes following treatment were longitudinally evaluated and categorized based upon the following criteria: 1) ‘No Surgical Intervention’: No severe complications or surgery required after presentation, 2) ‘Surgical Intervention’: Decline in BCVA with surgery required for a severe complication.ResultsThe search criteria identified 205 patients (205 eyes) with the diagnosis of a corneal ulcer. Mean age was 55.3 ± 21.1 years (mean ± SD). Mean ulcer area at presentation was 7 ± 10.5 mm2. Mean LogMAR at presentation was 1.2 ± 1, and following treatment, improved to 1.0 ± 1. ‘Surgical Intervention’ outcome was associated with advanced age (p = 0.005), presence of ocular surface disease (p = 0.008), central location of ulcer (p = 0.014), greater ulcer area at presentation (p = 0.003), worse visual acuity at presentation (p < 0.001), and isolation of fungi (p = 0.004).ConclusionIdentification of risk factors associated with a poor clinical prognosis can guide treatment and inform expectations for patients diagnosed with a corneal ulcer. Our study highlights the importance of timely diagnosis, work-up, and initiation of appropriate management, particularly in vulnerable populations where access to specialty care is logistically challenging.

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Application of metagenomic next-generation sequencing in the diagnosis of Bartonella neuroretinitis: a case report and literature review.

Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is caused by Bartonella henselae infection. In atypical cases of CSD, pathogen determination is challenging. We report a case of Bartonella neuroretinitis with neither a clear history of scratches nor typical general symptoms. The diagnosis was made using metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS), a high-throughput sequencing technology. A female patient presented to the ophthalmologist with complaint of blurred vision in her right eye. Although with history of raising a cat, she reported no clear history of scratches or typical general symptoms, except a fever of unknown origin which resolved spontaneously. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of the right eye was count fingers. Fundus examination showed optic disc oedema, macular exudates and inferior exudative retinal detachment. Laboratory examination results showed increased value of serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Ocular involvement of toxoplasmosis, syphilis and tuberculosis were excluded. To identify the possible causative pathogen of the disease, mNGS of aqueous humour sample was performed and 521 reads of B. henselae were identified. Serological test results further showed a positive immunoglobulin G (IgG) titre of 1:64. Taking the contact history, clinical manifestations, mNGS and serological results into consideration, the diagnosis of Bartonella neuroretinitis (ocular CSD) was made. After appropriatetreatment, the BCVA of the right eye improved to 20/25 in the last follow-up. Fundus examination showed a normal optic disc and macula, and the exudates had reduced. mNGS, a fast and unbiased method, can be used to detect B. henselae (if present) in intraocular fluid samples.; however, the results should be interpreted together with the clinical symptoms and other auxiliary test results.

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Piloting Rasch model scoring of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire in uveitis

IntroductionThe National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ) is a common patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) in uveitis trials. Its psychometric properties using state-of-the-art scoring based on Rasch models, a latent trait model that improves accuracy of PROMs assessment, has not yet been investigated.MethodsThe study participants were recruited online from uveitis patient organizations, where individuals self-reported their uveitis diagnosis and visual acuity level. These participants then completed the NEI VFQ-25. The visual function (VF) and socioemotional (SE) subscales were psychometrically analysed in terms of item fit, targeting, internal consistency, dimensionality, and differential item functioning (DIF), using Rasch models. Criterion validity was examined based on associations between NEI VFQ person measures and recent visual acuity (VA) levels.ResultsNinety-nine participants recruited online from uveitis patient organizations (68 women, 31 men; mean age 50 ± 15 years; 46.5% self-reported receiving systematic therapy for uveitis, 0.6% NEI VFQ-25 missing data) were included. The mean difficulty of items was lower than the average person ability. None of the items demonstrated misfit to an extent that would induce noise into the measurement. The consistency metrics person reliability and person separation index of the subscales were 0.85 and 2.34 (NEI VFQ-VF), 0.86 and 2.52 (NEI VFQ-SE), respectively. There was no evidence of multidimensionality and none of the items showed DIF by gender. The differences between item and person measures were 1.44 (NEI VFQ-VF) and 1.03 (NEI VFQ-SE). NEI VFQ-25 person measures were significantly lower in participants with visual impairment (all p values ≤ 0.007).ConclusionRasch model-based scoring of the re-engineered NEI VFQ-25 demonstrates acceptable internal consistency, item fit and construct validity for assessing two key domains of quality of life in individuals self-reporting uveitis. The PROM was targeted at a higher level of difficulty than present in our heterogeneous sample.

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Peripheral ulcerative keratitis associated with tralokinumab therapy: a case report and review of IL-13 inhibitor-associated ocular surface disease

BackgroundDupilumab and tralokinumab are interleukin-binding monoclonal antibodies used to treat systemic atopic disease. Use of these medications in management of atopic dermatitis (AD) is known to cause conjunctivitis. Dupilumab therapy has also been associated with more severe ocular surface disease, which has not previously been described in association with tralokinumab. This report describes a case of tralokinumab-associated conjunctivitis and peripheral ulcerative keratitis and reviews the spectrum and proposed mechanisms of ocular surface disease triggered by these medications.Case presentationA 61-year-old male with no rheumatologic or ocular history presented with bilateral papillary conjunctivitis and right eye peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK). PUK was arrested using oral corticosteroids and doxycycline, and long-term control of papillary conjunctivitis was achieved using topical tacrolimus ointment, allowing continuation of effective AD management with tralokinumab.ConclusionThis case report documents ulcerative keratitis occurring in association with tralokinumab therapy for AD, which has previously been described with dupilumab but not tralokinumab. This report demonstrates the need for vigilant ocular surface monitoring for patients on tralokinumab and illustrates successful management and long-term control of adverse ocular events associated with this medication.

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A case of Lomentospora prolificans endophthalmitis treated with the novel antifungal agent Olorofim

PurposeTo report a case of endogenous Lomentospora prolificans endophthalmitis treated with the novel antifungal agent Olorofim.Case reportA 57-year-old man developed disseminated Lomentospora prolificans with right endophthalmitis on the background of immunosuppression following lung transplantation for interstitial lung disease. He was treated with early vitrectomy, intravitreal voriconazole, and systemic Olorofim, voriconazole and terbinafine. His symptoms improved and remained stable in the right eye. Eight weeks later the patient represented with Lomentopora prolificans endophthalmitis in the left eye when systemic voriconazole and terbinafine treatment were withdrawn. Despite aggressive treatment he ultimately succumbed due to vascular complications of extensive disseminated disease.ConclusionWe report a rare case of disseminated Lomentosporosis with panophthalmitis in an immunocompromised host with prolonged survival on systemic Olorofim, voriconazole and terbinafine in conjunction with pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreal voriconazole. Early suspicion of an opportunistic fungal infection is critical, as managing disseminated disease is often unsuccessful. Despite presumed inherent resistance, intravitreal and systemic voriconazole appeared to limit disease progression in the right eye. The potential synergistic effects of combined antifungal therapy with orotomides warrant further investigation.

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Intravenous cyclophosphamide therapy for patients with severe ocular inflammatory diseases who failed other immunomodulatory therapies

BackgroundOcular inflammatory diseases, including scleritis and uveitis, have been widely treated with immunomodulatory therapies (IMTs) as a steroid-sparing approach. Such strategy includes conventional therapies (antimetabolites, alkylating agents, and calcineurin inhibitors) as well as biologic agents like adalimumab, infliximab, rituximab, and tocilizumab. Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an alkylating agent and mainly inhibits the functioning of both T and B cells. Though known to have potential adverse events, including bone marrow suppression, hemorrhagic cystitis, and sterility, CP has been shown to be efficacious, especially in recalcitrant cases and when used intravenous (IV) for a limited period.Main findingsWe conducted a retrospective case-series to assess the safety and efficacy of CP therapy for patients with severe ocular inflammatory diseases who failed other IMTs. Medical records of 1295 patients who presented to the Uveitis Clinic at the Byers Eye Institute at Stanford between 2017 and 2022 were reviewed. Seven patients (10 eyes) who received CP therapy for ocular inflammatory diseases with at least one year of follow-up were included. The mean age of the patients (4 males, 3 females) was 61.6 ± 14.9 (43.0–89.0) years. Clinical diagnoses included necrotizing scleritis (5 eyes), peripheral ulcerative keratitis (2 eyes), orbital pseudotumor (1 eye), HLA-B27 associated panuveitis and retinal vasculitis (2 eyes). Ocular disease was idiopathic in 3 patients, and was associated with rheumatoid arthritis, IgG-4 sclerosing disease, dermatomyositis, and ankylosing spondylitis in 1 patient each. All the patients had history of previous IMT use including methotrexate (5), mycophenolate mofetil (3), azathioprine (1), tacrolimus (1), adalimumab (2), infliximab (4), and rituximab (1). The mean follow-up time was 34.4 ± 11.0 (13–45) months, and mean duration of CP therapy was 11.9 ± 8.8 (5–28) months. Remission was achieved in 5 patients (71.4%). Four patients (57.1%) experienced transient leukopenia (white blood cell count < 4000/mL).Short conclusionCP therapy can be considered a potentially effective and relatively safe therapeutic option for patients with severe ocular inflammatory diseases who failed other IMTs including biologics (TNFa and CD20 inhibitors).

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Clinical analysis of infectious endophthalmitis following glaucoma filtration surgery

BackgroundThis study aimed to evaluate the clinical correlative factors and outcomes of treatment of bleb-associated endophthalmitis (BAE) following glaucoma filtration surgery in a Chinese population from the year 2012 to 2022, and to compare them with the clinical course during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic period.MethodsThis was a retrospective analysis of consecutive cases of BAE treated at the Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China, between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2022. The clinical presentation, treatment modality, microbiological data, clinical course, and outcomes of visual acuity (VA) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in all BAE cases were collected and analyzed.ResultsA total of 28 eyes with BAE were examined, predominantly in male patients (71.4%, p = 0.023). Most patients underwent trabeculectomy (89.3%, p ≤ 0.001), while a smaller proportion underwent Ex-PRESS implantation (10.7%). Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) was the most common type of glaucoma (39.3%, p ≤ 0.001). Most patients (96.4%) presented with poor visual acuity, worse than 20/400, and IOP ranged from 3–60 mmHg. Treatment, including initial tap-and-inject procedure of antibiotics (Ceftazidime and Norvancomycin) or initial pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), was initiated 5.0 ± 7.1 days after BAE onset. Streptococcus was the most common causative organism (53.6% of cases, p ≤ 0.001). The visual acuity significantly improved from 2.58 ± 0.27 to 2.14 ± 0.85 (reported in logMAR) after treatment (p ≤ 0.001), and most patients maintained normal tension during follow-up. Poisson regression model analysis showed the annual incidence of BAE during the COVID-19 pandemic period was significantly twice greater than that of previous years.ConclusionsBAE may cause irreversible visual impairment. POAG filtering surgery with male sex and the COVID-19 pandemic period might be potentially relevant factors for BAE. Culture positivity was closely related to BAE prognosis, with Streptococcus species being the leading pathogenic organisms. Online outpatient services, early diagnosis, and timely treatment may rescue vision and maintain IOP control in the presence of BAE.

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Immune recovery uveitis in Whipple’s disease: an unusual ocular presentation

PurposeTo describe an unusual case of Whipple’s disease (WD) complicated by uveitis, and subsequent paradoxical worsening after effective antibiotic treatment targeting Tropheryma whipplei (TW).MethodsCase report.ResultsA 53-year-old male presented with bilateral knee arthritis, weight loss, chronic low-grade fever, and cognitive disorders. He was under treatment with tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors (TNFi) for seronegative spondyloarthritis. Given this unusual clinical presentation, further investigations were performed and revealed blood, saliva, stool, synovial fluid and cerebrospinal fluid positivity for TW, confirming the diagnosis of systemic WD. Ophthalmologic examination revealed bilateral posterior uveitis and an aqueous humor sample confirmed the presence of intraocular TW. TNFi were stopped, and the patient was subsequently treated with adequate antibiotics (ceftriaxone, followed by doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine), and subconjunctival corticosteroid injections. After a transient improvement of the ocular symptoms, he presented a recurrence of posterior segment inflammation, leading to repeated PCR testing for TW which were negative. Therefore, paradoxical worsening of the inflammation in the context of immune recovery uveitis (IRU) was thought to be the culprit. The patient was treated with systemic corticosteroid therapy, allowing for rapid improvement of the ocular findings.ConclusionsThis case underlines the possibility of IRU complicating WD. Ophthalmologists, rheumatologists, and internists should be aware of this rare complication, particularly in the context of previous immunosuppressive therapy.

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