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Oral Administration of Rhamnan Sulfate from Monostroma nitidum Suppresses Atherosclerosis in ApoE-Deficient Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

Oral administration of rhamnan sulfate (RS), derived from the seaweed Monostroma nitidum, markedly suppresses inflammatory damage in the vascular endothelium and organs of lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. This study aimed to analyze whether orally administered RS inhibits the development of atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammation of the arteries. ApoE-deficient female mice were fed a normal or high-fat diet (HFD) with or without RS for 12 weeks. Immunohistochemical and mRNA analyses of atherosclerosis-related genes were performed. The effect of RS on the migration of RAW264.7 cells was also examined in vitro. RS administration suppressed the increase in blood total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In the aorta of HFD-fed mice, RS reduced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, macrophage accumulation, and elevation of VCAM-1 and inhibited the reduction of Robo4. Increased mRNA levels of Vcam1, Mmp9, and Srebp1 in atherosclerotic areas of HFD-fed mice were also suppressed with RS. Moreover, RS directly inhibited the migration of RAW264.7 cells in vitro. Thus, in HFD-fed ApoE-deficient mice, oral administration of RS ameliorated abnormal lipid metabolism and reduced vascular endothelial inflammation and hyperpermeability, macrophage infiltration and accumulation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation in the arteries leading to atherosclerosis. These results suggest that RS is an effective functional food for the prevention of atherosclerosis.

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Beneficial effects of seaweed-derived components on metabolic syndrome via gut microbiota modulation.

Metabolic syndrome comprises a group of conditions that collectively increase the risk of abdominal obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Gut microbiota is involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, and microbial diversity and function are strongly affected by diet. In recent years, epidemiological evidence has shown that the dietary intake of seaweed can prevent metabolic syndrome via gut microbiota modulation. In this review, we summarize the current in vivo studies that have reported the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome via seaweed-derived components by regulating the gut microbiota and the production of short-chain fatty acids. Among the surveyed related articles, animal studies revealed that these bioactive components mainly modulate the gut microbiota by reversing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, increasing the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria, such as Bacteroides, Akkermansia, Lactobacillus, or decreasing the abundance of harmful bacteria, such as Lachnospiraceae, Desulfovibrio, Lachnoclostridium. The regulated microbiota is thought to affect host health by improving gut barrier functions, reducing LPS-induced inflammation or oxidative stress, and increasing bile acid production. Furthermore, these compounds increase the production of short-chain fatty acids and influence glucose and lipid metabolism. Thus, the interaction between the gut microbiota and seaweed-derived bioactive components plays a critical regulatory role in human health, and these compounds have the potential to be used for drug development. However, further animal studies and human clinical trials are required to confirm the functional roles and mechanisms of these components in balancing the gut microbiota and managing host health.

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Temperature and Pressure Dependence of the Transport Properties of the Ionic Liquid Triethyloctylphosphonium Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide, [P<sub>222,8</sub>][Tf<sub>2</sub>N]

Viscosities of triethyloctylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide, [P222,8][Tf2N], are reported as a function of temperature [(273 to 363) K] and pressure (maximum 302 MPa) with a falling-body viscometer together with electrical conductivities (κ) measured by impedance spectroscopy at (283 to 348) K, to 250 MPa maximum pressure. pVT data were determined with a vibrating tube densimeter from (298 to 353) K to 50 MPa. Ion self-diffusion coefficients (DSi) were measured by steady-gradient spin-echo NMR [(313 to 365) K], and densities [(273 to 363) K] were determined with a vibrating tube densimeter, both at atmospheric pressure. The results were correlated with Walden and Stokes–Einstein–Sutherland relations. Velocity cross-correlation coefficients (VCC), distinct diffusion coefficients (DDC) and Laity resistance coefficients (LRC) were calculated from DSi and κ at 0.1 MPa. The DDC and LRC for [P222,8][Tf2N] and the pentyl-substituted analogue, [P222,5][Tf2N], showed differences for cation–cation and cation–anion velocity anti correlations, presumably due to the different cation structures. The high-pressure viscosities were used to predict the pressure dependence of the glass-transition temperature for [P222,5][Tf2N] and [P222,8][Tf2N]. Density scaling was applied to the high-pressure viscosities and conductivities of [P222,8][Tf2N] for comparison with [P222,5][Tf2N]. The scaling parameters are consistent with the theoretical treatment of Knudsen et al. for ionic liquids.

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