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Experimental investigation and thermodynamic analysis of application of hybrid nanofluid in a parabolic solar trough collector.

In this research, thermal modeling has been done to investigate the effect of nanofluid on the performance of the linear parabolic collector. Therminol vapor/liquid phase fluid (VP-1) has been used as a base fluid; iron oxide nanoparticles have been used to produce mono-nanofluid; and iron oxide multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite has been used as nanoparticles to produce hybrid nanofluid. The fluid flow inside the absorber tube of the collector is assumed to be turbulent. The results show that when hybrid nanofluid and mono-nanofluid are used, the energy and exergy efficiencies of the collector are higher than those for the conditions of using the base fluid, but their amount is slightly lower with the use of hybrid nanofluid than when the working fluid is mono-nanofluid. According to the obtained results, the highest energy efficiency of the linear parabolic collector using nanofluid and mono-nanofluid is 70.2% and 70.4%, respectively, and the highest exergy efficiency is 35.7% and 35.9%, respectively. Despite this, the friction coefficient of mono-nanofluid compared to hybrid nanofluid was obtained on average about 9% higher. The results showed that the criterion for evaluating the performance of the collector (hydrodynamic thermal efficiency) when hybrid nanofluid is used is more than when mono-nanofluid is used.

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Bibliometric analysis of hotspots and trends of global myopia research

AIM: To gain insights into the global research hotspots and trends of myopia. METHODS: Articles were downloaded from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2022 from the Science Core Database website and were mainly statistically analyzed by bibliometrics software. RESULTS: A total of 444 institutions in 87 countries published 4124 articles. Between 2013 and 2022, China had the highest number of publications (n=1865) and the highest H-index (61). Sun Yat-sen University had the highest number of publications (n=229) and the highest H-index (33). Ophthalmology is the main category in related journals. Citations from 2020 to 2022 highlight keywords of options and reference, child health (pediatrics), myopic traction mechanism, public health, and machine learning, which represent research frontiers. CONCLUSION: Myopia has become a hot research field. China and Chinese institutions have the strongest academic influence in the field from 2013 to 2022. The main driver of myopic research is still medical or ophthalmologists. This study highlights the importance of public health in addressing the global rise in myopia, especially its impact on children’s health. At present, a unified theoretical system is still needed. Accurate surgical and therapeutic solutions must be proposed for people with different characteristics to manage and intervene refractive errors. In addition, the benefits of artificial intelligence (AI) models are also reflected in disease monitoring and prediction.

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Clinicopathological characteristics and typing of multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential

BACKGROUND Up until now, no research has been reported on the association between the clinical growth rate of multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential (MCRNLMP) and computed tomography (CT) imaging characteristics. Our study sought to examine the correlation between them, with the objective of distinguishing unique features of MCRNLMP from renal cysts and exploring effective management strategies. AIM To investigate optimal management strategies of MCRNLMP. METHODS We retrospectively collected and analyzed data from 1520 patients, comprising 1444 with renal cysts and 76 with MCRNLMP, who underwent renal cyst decompression, radical nephrectomy, or nephron-sparing surgery for renal cystic disease between January 2013 and December 2021 at our institution. Detection of MCRNLMP utilized the Bosniak classification for imaging and the 2016 World Health Organization criteria for clinical pathology. RESULTS Our meticulous exploration has revealed compelling findings on the occurrence of MCRNLMP. Precisely, it comprises 1.48% of all cases involving simple renal cysts, 5.26% of those with complex renal cysts, and a noteworthy 12.11% of renal tumors coexisting with renal cysts, indicating a statistically significant difference (P = 0.001). Moreover, MCRNLMP constituted a significant 22.37% of the patient population whose cysts demonstrated a rapid growth rate of ≥ 2.0 cm/year, whereas it only represented 0.66% among those with a growth rate below 2.0 cm/year. Of the 76 MCRNLMP cases studied, none of the nine patients who underwent subsequent nephron-sparing surgery or radical nephrectomy following renal cyst decompression experienced recurrence or metastasis. In the remaining 67 patients, who were actively monitored over a 3-year postoperative period, only one showed suspicious recurrence on CT scans. CONCLUSION MCRNLMP can be tentatively identified and categorized into three types based on CT scanning and growth rate indicators. In treating MCRNLMP, partial nephrectomy is preferred, while radical nephrectomy should be minimized. After surgery, active monitoring is advisable to prevent unnecessary nephrectomy.

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Affective cognition in response to infant stimuli in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women

ABSTRACT Physiological, neurocognitive, and psychological changes facilitates adaptation to motherhood. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women in affective cognitive and psychophysiological responses to infant stimuli. We hypothesized that pregnant women would display (I) reduced negative emotional reactivity and perception of distressed infant stimuli, (II) increased attention toward infants compared to adults, and (III) greater psychophysiological response to infant distress. The sample comprised 22 pregnant women (22–38 weeks gestation) and 18 non-pregnant nulliparous women. Four computerized tasks were administered to measure affective cognitive processing of infant stimuli, while recording facial expressions, electrodermal activity, and eye gazes. Results indicated that pregnant women exhibited fewer negative facial expressions, reported less frustration when exposed to distressed infant cries, and showed greater attention to emotional infant faces compared to non-pregnant women, but the differences did not remain statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. No differences were observed in psychophysiological responses. The findings indicate a possible pregnancy-mediated effect regarding the cognitive processing of infant stimuli, potentially as preparation for motherhood. Future research with larger samples and longitudinal design is needed to understand the predictors, timing, and plasticity of cognitive changes during pregnancy.

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Health Messaging Strategies for Vaping Prevention and Cessation Among Youth and Young Adults: A Systematic Review

ABSTRACT This systematic review evaluates health messaging strategies for the prevention and cessation of e-cigarette use among youth and young adults. Health messaging strategies were defined as the strategic process of developing messages with the intent to shape, reinforce, or change recipients’ health attitudes and behaviors. McGuire’s Communication/Persuasion Model guided the analysis of the messaging strategies, focusing on the model’s five communication inputs (i.e. source, message, channel, audience, destination) and 14 persuasive outcomes. Nine databases were searched from January 2007 to September 2023. The inclusion criteria encompassed studies in English that presented quantitative data on messaging strategies aimed at discouraging vaping among youth and young adults. Each study was also coded for study characteristics and the utilization of theory. Out of 6,045 studies, 25 met the inclusion criteria. The reviewed studies exhibit a diverse array of research methods and a consistent integration of theories. The review emphasizes the nuanced main and interaction effects of various communication inputs, such as message features and audience characteristics, while also pointing out a research gap in message sources. In addition, the utilization of social media for effective messaging to engage the audience requires further research. Only one study specifically evaluated messaging strategies for vaping cessation. More research is imperative to develop targeted and tailored messages that effectively prevent and reduce vaping, especially among populations at higher risk of vaping-related harms, while also leveraging effective channels and innovative communication technologies to engage the audience.

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