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Whey Protein Isolate as a Substrate to Design Calendula officinalis Flower Extract Controlled-Release Materials.

The use of natural active substances and the development of new formulations are promising directions in the cosmetic and pharmacy industries. The primary purpose of this research was the production of microparticles based on whey protein isolate (WPI) and calcium alginate (ALG) containing Calendula officinalis flower extract and their incorporation into films composed of gelatin, WPI, and glycerol. Both swollen and dry microparticles were studied by optical microscopy and their sizes were measured. Water absorption by the microparticles, their loading capacity, and the release profile of flower extract were also characterized. The films were analyzed by mechanical tests (Young's modulus, tensile strength, elongation at break), swelling capacity, contact angle, and moisture content measurements. The presented data showed that the active ingredient was successfully enclosed in spherical microparticles and completely released after 75 min of incubation at 37 °C. The incorporation of the microparticles into polymer films caused a decrease in stiffness and tensile strength, simultaneously increasing the ductility of the samples. Moreover, the films containing microparticles displayed higher swelling ability and moisture content compared to those without them. Hence, the materials prepared in this study with Calendula officinalis flower extract encapsulated into polymeric microspheres can be a starting point for the development of new products intended for skin application; advantages include protection of the extract against external factors and a controlled release profile.

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Current and future applications of PVDF-carbon nanomaterials in energy and sensing

The review unveils the diverse applications of concerted polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-carbon nanomaterial (CNM) systems, spanning from electromagnetic interference shielding, including elimination of 5G-interference, to piezoelectrics and a variety of sensing modalities (breathing, movement, health monitoring, structural integrity assessments, home monitoring, and seismic acceleration). These materials also excel in biomaterials with applications like tactile skin and COVID-preventing facemasks through sunlight sterilization. Moreover, PVDF-CNMs demonstrate excellence in radar absorption, solar-assisted electricity generation, triboelectric energy harvesting, 3D-4D printing materials, anti-icing covers, anti-stealth materials, and heat-dissipating solids in electronics. Across diverse scientific disciplines, the research merges materials chemistry and engineering, yielding materials with multimodal functionalities. The demand for a comprehensive review stems from the need to synthesize insights from fundamental sciences and technologies, capturing the cutting-edge nature of these materials. The scientific goals revolve around elucidating the link between PVDF and CNMs' structural attributes and physico-chemical properties. Two key objectives guide this exploration: (a) shedding light on the conversion from PVDF α- to β-phase toward its applicability in EMI shielding, piezoelectrics, sensors, and energy harvesters, and (b) highlighting the simplicity in generating PVDF-CNMs, presenting a vast potential for tuning material features like hydrophilicity, mechanical properties, piezoelectric characteristics, catalytic activity, and bioactivity. This pursuit of scientific excellence indicates new avenues, underscoring significance of the ongoing research and inviting the scientific community to explore uncharted territories, fostering a continuous environment of discovery and innovation in the dynamic landscape of PVDF-CNMs.

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Cangrelor - Expanding therapeutic options in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

Cangrelor is the only intravenous P2Y12 receptor antagonist. It is an adenosine triphosphate analog that selectively, directly, and reversibly binds to the platelet P2Y12 receptors exerting its antiaggregatory effect. Cangrelor is characterized by linear, dose-dependent pharmacokinetics and rapid onset of action providing potent platelet inhibition exceeding 90%. Cangrelor is rapidly metabolized by endothelial endonucleotidase; thus, its half-life is 2.9 to 5.5 min, and its antiplatelet effect subsides within 60 to 90 min. Data originating from three pivotal cangrelor trials (CHAMPION PLATFORM, CHAMPION PCI, and CHAMPION PHOENIX) indicate that cangrelor reduces the risk of periprocedural thrombotic complications during percutaneous coronary intervention at the expense of mild bleedings. Its unique pharmacological properties allow it to overcome the limitations of oral P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, mainly related to the delayed and decreased bioavailability and antiplatelet effect of these agents, which are often observed in the setting of acute coronary syndrome. Subgroups of patients who could theoretically benefit the most from cangrelor include those in whom pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral P2Y12 receptor antagonists are most disturbed, namely patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, those treated with opioids, with mild therapeutic hypothermia, or in cardiogenic shock. Cangrelor could also be useful if bridging is required in patients undergoing surgery. According to the current guidelines cangrelor may be considered in P2Y12 receptor inhibitor-naïve patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in both acute and stable settings.

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Natural Coumarin Derivatives Targeting Melanoma.

In general, a cancerous process starts from uncontrolled cell growth, apoptosis, and rapid proliferation of cellular clones, as well as, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and imbalance of ROS-antioxidant production also could be involved in the genesis of the disease. Cancer has accounted for millions of deaths worldwide every year, representing a relevant threat to human lives. In this context, malignant melanoma represents the most aggressive and deadliest type of cancer, leading to increased rates of patient deaths. Natural active compounds have demonstrated their pharmacological benefits in several different studies. Among these compounds, coumarin analogs have demonstrated promising biological profiles, considering their efficacy and low toxicity. In this context, this phytochemical oxygenated core has been broadly investigated since it presents several biological properties of interest in the medicinal field. Herein, we reported a complete compilation of studies focused on natural coumarins against melanoma, as well as, tyrosinase since it is a cooper-catalyzed oxidase that performs an essential role during melanogenesis (Eu-melanins and Pheo-melanins), which is associated with melanoma. Thus, three different subclasses of natural coumarin were described in detail, such as simple coumarin core, furanocoumarins, pyranocoumarins, and pyrone-substituents. Additionally, insights on tyrosinase have been provided, allowing an overview of some structural/functional aspects of its enzyme, such as the presence of a binuclear type 3 cooper coordination at the binding site of this target, acting as cofactors. Posteriorly, several coumarin-based analogs with anti-tyrosinase activity also were reported and discussed. Finally, we believe that unprecedented review can be a valuable source of information, which can be used to design and develop novel coumarin-based analogs targeting melanoma and also tyrosinase enzyme, contributing to the advances in the field of natural products.

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